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The Kyteler Case And Its Surroundings Of Sorcery And Heresymichael Scotthe Fourth Earl Of Desmondjames I And The Irish

Are best qualified to give their opinion on the matter have assured the writer that to the best of their belief no entries with respect to trials for sorcery or witchcraft can be found in the various old Rolls preserved in the Dublin Record Office. But when the story is considered with reference to the following facts it takes on a different signification. On the 29th of September 1317 (Wright says 1320), Bishop de Ledrede held his first Synod, at which several canons were passed, one of which seems in some degree introductory to the events detailed in the preceding chapter. In it he speaks of a certain new and pestilential sect in our parts, differing from all the faithful in the world, filled with a devilish spirit, more inhuman than heathens or Jews, who pursue the priests and bishops of the Most High God equally in life and death, by spoiling and rending the patrimony of Christ in the diocese of Ossory, and who utter grievous threats against the bishops and their ministers...

A comic representation of Socrates as an evocator Chorus of Birds Beside the Shadow

Beside the altar of Athene Chalkioikos stand two statues of the Pausanias that led the Greeks at Plataea. I will not relate his adventures to people already familiar with them. The accounts of earlier writers are sufficiently accurate. It will be enough for me to add a gloss to what they say. I heard from a man of Byzantium that Pausanias was discovered in his plotting and was the only suppliant of Chalkioikos to fail to secure immunity for no other reason than that he could not wash out the pollution of a murder. For when he was based at the Hellespont with the Spartan navy and the navies of the allies, he developed a passion for a virgin of Byzantium. At nightfall Cleonice for this was the girl's name was brought to him by officers detailed to do so. Pausanias was asleep at this time, but he was roused by the noise. For as she made her way toward him she accidentally knocked over a lighted lamp. Pausanias was in a perpetual state of restless anxiety because of his guilty conscience...

Christmas Pagan Holiday

Christmas Pagan

The Catholic Church selected December 25th to coincide with the pagan holiday of December 25th in an attempt to assimilate non-Christians. The Christian world had no history of its own for hundreds of years, no historical chronology for at least four hundred years. An older Encyclopedia Britannica states Christians count one hundred and thirty-three contrary opinions of different authors concerning the year the Messiah appeared on earth many of them celebrated writers. Jesus Christ was deified by Constantine in the year 325 A.D. December 25th, Christmas, was propagated and propagandized as the day of his birth and Christians accepted this on faith though their top chronologists could find no evidence to support this. This date was celebrated in the temple of Jerusalem to the god Adonis. One writer has said At the first moment after midnight of the twenty fourth of December, the ancient nations celebrated the accouchement of the queen of heaven and celestial virgin, and the birth of...

There have been Witches in all Ages

The accounts of both Latin and Gaelic writers give us a fair idea of the high estimation the natives had for their Druids, and both in Gaul and in Ireland it was believed that the cult originated in Britain. So they sent their 'theological students' there to learn its doctrines from the purest source. Pliny the Elder tells us that Britain 'might have taught magic to Persia'. We know little of their teachings but they believed in reincarnation.

The Witches and the Mysteries

I know, of course, that ancient and modern writers have agreed that the Greek mysteries of Dionysus, Zeus, Orpheus, Zagreus and Eleusis were similar therefore since each mystery had different rites and myths but was the same, this must mean that they had some inner secret. Christian writers were accustomed to speak of these mysteries as orgies, and Chesterton, speaking of the Bacchae of Euripides, says 'Nowadays, imagine the Premier going off with the Archbishop of Canterbury to dance with unknown fair ones on Hampstead Heath.' But they did this because the gods wished them to and not for pleasure only, though doubtless they did enjoy it. Nowadays people might be shocked if they thought they enjoyed it, or even if they obtained fresh air and exercise that way, as the Jews were highly shocked at Christ's breaking the Sabbath. So when old writers who were initiated say 'all the mysteries were the same', surely they must mean the inner essences were the same. A heathen examining the...

Hermotimus of Clazomenae Soulprojection The following sort of thing is reported of

At that time the Athenians were in the grip of a pestilence. The Pythia prophesied that they should purify the city. They sent Nicias the son of Niceratus to Crete with a ship, to call in Epimenides. He came in the forty-sixth Olympiad 595-2 B.C. , purified their city, and put an end to the pestilence in the following fashion. He took black sheep and white ones and led them onto the Areopagus. From there he let them wander wherever they wanted, instructing their followers to sacrifice each sheep to the deity at hand, wherever it should cast itself down. In this way the blight was abated. As a result even still in these days it is possible to find nameless altars around the demes of Attica that are memorials to the propitiation performed at that time. Some writers say that he declared the cause of the pestilence to be the Cylonian pollution, and that he indicated how to dismiss it. For this reason two young men, Cratinus and Ctesibius, went to their deaths and the city was delivered...

Fertility Signals In Witchcraft

Wiccan Immortality Symbol

Isis of the mysteries and Hermetic wisdom. According to Plutarch, numerous ancient writers believed Isis to be the daughter of HERMES, while others said she was the daughter of Prometheus. Plutarch said her name meant wisdom. She was known as the goddess of 10,000 appellations. In the Egyptian mysteries, Isis represented the female aspect of the Deity to mankind she was the Universal Mother of all that lives wisdom, truth and power. Statues of her were decorated with stars, the Moon and the Sun. Her girdle was joined together with four golden plates which signify the four elements of nature. Her priests were adept at controlling and using the Unseen Forces.

Out of the Land of Egypt

Each of the ancient mysteries at Cabrai, Samothrace and Eleusis had a different myth and was dedicated to a different god, Zeus, Dionysus, Orpheus or another, and performed different ceremonies but since the classical writers say the mysteries were all the same, the teachings behind the myths may well have been identical.

The tradition and lore of the mages I have repeatedly been exposing the emptiness of the

Without doubt magic was first invented over there in Persia by Zoroaster, as writers agree. But it is not established whether there was just one man of this name or whether there was another one afterward too. Eudoxus, who wanted magic to be understood as the most distinguished and useful among philosophical sects, asserted that this Zoroaster lived six thousand years before the death of Plato, and Aristotle follows him in this. 4. Hermippus, who wrote about the whole craft in a very careful way, compiled abstracts for and commentaries on the two million verses written by Zoroaster FGH 1026 F57 . He reported that he Zoroaster or Hermippus had been instructed by Azonaces, and that the man himself had lived five thousand years before the Trojan war. The thing that is particularly amazing is that the memory of the craft should have survived over such a long period, despite the fact that it was not preserved by any intervening commentaries or, moreover, any distinguished line of...

Pythagorass range of miracles Pythagoras the son of Mnesarchus came after these men First

This PASSAGE SUMMARIZES PYTHAGORAS'S extraordinary abilities Lucian could apply the term sorcery to them (goeteia Bion Prasis 2). Among these abilities bilocation is of particular interest see 5, where, however, the biloca-tion is said to have taken place between Metapontum and Tauromenium. The neo-Pythagorean Apollonius of Tyana similarly manifested himself simultaneously at Ephesus and Thurii (58). Pherecydes of Syros, whose supposed floruit was the mid-sixth century B.C., was a traveling miracle-worker. He speculated on the origins of the cosmos and was a proponent of the immortality of the soul. He is said to have been the first writer of Greek prose. For snake-blasting see 49, with commentary.

Witch Attacking Postures

Witchcraft Book

The enclosed typescript may be of some interest to you. It is a copy of a manuscript that was given to me by a student in my Witchcraft course in real life, a graduate student in the History Department. The writer, who is personally known by my student, is a young lady in her mid-twenties a professed student witch who claims to be descended from a long line of witches. She is, I am told, studying the craft under a powerful witch in Madison, Wisconsin.

Cunningham John See John Fian

Judith Phillips Cunning Woman

Cunningham, Scott (1956-1993) Prolific Wiccan author and expert on earth and natural MAGIC, best known for his books on magical herbalism, earth power, crystals, gems and metals and the truth about Witchcraft. Born June 27, 1956, in Royal Oak, Michigan, Cunningham lived in San Diego from 1961 until his death in 1993. He began practicing WICCA in 1971. A full-time writer, he authored more than 30 fiction and nonfiction books and wrote scripts for occult videocassettes. In 1974 he enrolled in San Diego State University and studied creative writing, intending to become a professional writer like his father, Chet, who has authored more than 170 nonfiction and fiction books. He wrote truck and automotive trade articles and advertising copy on a freelance basis. After two years in college, he realized he

John Stearne Lawshall

Witches Manningtree

The fate of Hopkins remains a mystery. There is no trace of him after 1647. Popular legend has it that he was accused of witchcraft and died miserably. William Andrews, a 19th-century writer on Essex folklore, stated in Bygone Essex (1892) that Hopkins was passing through Suffolk and was himself accused of being in league with the Devil, and was charged with having stolen a memorandum book containing a list of all the witches in England, which he obtained by means of sorcery.

Witchcraft In The News

Wjsn Secret

Writer-priest Greeley mentions a Catholic University that discovered it had a coven of male witches (warlocks) on its campus. Among other observations Girls in Catholic colleges who make decisions based on the I Ching the Six-Day School in Sonoma, Calif, comprised mostly of Berkeley drop-outs who study mysticism, diet-pacificism and witchcraft the White Brotherhood, a revival of the medieval Catharist sect, spreading across the campuses and its messengers identical to those of the 13th century wandering minstrels, poets, street theatre actors etc the indebtedness to the Hippie Movement for this neo-sacredness which is a combination of pure seeking and the put-on the strong influence of Teilard de Chardin's book The Phenomenon of Man.

Witchcraft Reappears In County Kerry

One of the more interesting things about this story is that to qualify as a veterinarian in Ireland the prospect must have an extensive knowledge of all the ancient beliefs and witchcraft practices. This is in addition to a university degree. The writer quotes one such veterinary surgeon with a big practice in the Kerry area as saying Many people are simply terrified by these symbols when they find them on their land. I come up against it every other day and they don't teach you at the university how to treat an animal that just sickens for no medical reason.

Neopagan Witchcraft the Twigs

The Spiral Dance, Dreaming the Dark, and Truth or Dare, by Starhawk. Starhawk was the first writer to discuss the political and social implications of Goddess worship in general and magic in particular. Unfortunately, she backed off from her radicalism as she began to sell to the New Age market.

Some Remarks On Witchcraft In Ireland

IT is said, though we cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statement, that in a certain book on the natural history of Ireland there occurs a remarkable and oft-quoted chapter on Snakes--the said chapter consisting of the words, There are no snakes in Ireland. In the opinion of most people at the present day a book on Witchcraft in Ireland would be of equal length and similarly worded, except for the inclusion of the Kyteler case in the town of Kilkenny in the first half of the fourteenth century. For, with the exception of that classic incident, modern writers never found a home in Ireland as it did elsewhere. For example, the article on Witchcraft in the latest edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica mentions England and Scotland, then passes on to the Continent, and altogether ignores this country and this is, in general, the attitude adopted by writers on the subject. In view of this it seems very strange that no one has attempted to show why the Green Isle was so especially...

Witchcraft and Sorcery

Devil's pacts became a central element in the 16th century In the 15th century, the writers of inquisitional handbooks and treatises emphasized sorcery and witchcraft and drew upon the influential writings of St. Thomas Aquinas, who in the late 13th century condemned any kind of invocation of demons and Devil pacts either implicit or explicit.

The Myth Of Pagan Witchcraft

As the earlier contributions to this series have made clear, by the end of the eighteenth century educated opinion in Europe had virtually ceased to believe in the reality of acts of witchcraft. Such a change made the early modern trials and executions appear to have been a senseless series of atrocities, born of superstition and obscurantism, and that is how they were portrayed by the writers of the Enlightenment. As such, they represented a superb weapon with which to castigate the old order in Church and state. This liberal,- rationalist, discourse became the dominant one in European and American academe until the 1960s the ending of the trials for witchcraft was repeatedly cited as one of the supreme triumphs of reason and science over the ancient evils of humanity. triais was taken from pamphlets. This did not inhibit him at all. In 1862 he brought out La Sorci re, a best-seller which asserted that, the pagan religion of the witches had been the repository of popular liberties...

Firth Violet Mary See Dion Fortune

After three years, Fitch returned to civilian life in the United States, working as a technical writer and electronics engineer in Washington, D.C. It was now the 1960s, and contemporary Witchcraft and Paganism were spreading around the country. Fitch was initiated into the Gard-nerian tradition of Witchcraft by Raymond and Rosemary Buckland (see Raymond Buckland) and rose to the rank of high priest. He also was trained in trance channeling by Spiritualist mediums from the Church of All Worlds.

Why Witch Prosecutions Was An Attempt To Reassurt Male Power Over Women

The information from the pamphlets has to be handled with some caution as they are often accounts that were written for contemporary people and thus are prejudiced towards the accused witches (as can be seen in the extract at the start of this essay). Moreover, the accounts may be written by more than one person and might have been written from second-hand information with the writer(s)' own bias evident, for example, the 1582 trial pamphlet for the St Oysth's trials is thought to have been written by the local JP, Brian Darcy, who examined the accused before

The Nature of Your Coven

In the same manner that you sounded out suitable symbolism in your attempt to find an appropriate witch name for yourself, so you should evolve the basic idea on which to found your coven. However, most tradition-minded witches would insist here that, instead of throwing your limits wide enough to include all areas of magical and mythological legend, you should restrict yourself to those of a European basis seeing that it is with the Western magical tradition that you seek to put your group in contact. With this thought you may disagree, citing maybe with good reason the magical maxim popularized by the Cabalistic writer Dion Fortune that All Gods are one God, all Goddesses are one Goddess, and there is one Initiator. Dion Fortune began her magical career as a theosophist, and throughout all her works, there is much of a theosophical nonsectarian approach. Such an approach to witchcraft would seem to be objectionable only to the most sectarian-minded of witches but they do exist, and...

Witchquarters Of The World

Gardner gave to writer Daniel P. Mannix, and published in a past issue of True Magazine. He said By the use of certain incantations which the horned deity has revealed to his followers and which have come down to us through the ages, we have at our command almost unlimited power. For example, during the last war it was our spells that prevented Hitler from invading England, just as in 1588 the witches caused the storm that destroyed the Spanish Armada. Now that the British Isles are at the mercy of guided missiles, the need to develop this power is greater than ever. On the first floor of the Witches Museum there is a room especially set up for ritual magic. Writer Daniel P. Mannix writes In it stands a life-sized wax dummy of a magician dressed in robes and peaked hat performing an incantation. Dr. Gardner posed as model for the figure. Around it are an altar and the magical paraphernalia used for invoking demons, a consecrated sword, a bell, four iron disks...

Wicca Invades America

In the 1960's and 70's Murray, Graves, and Gardner found a wide audience in the United States, especially in the growing feminist community. Feminist writers ran with the idea of a pre-Christian matriarchal society and declared the witch trials a women's holocaust. In 1968 an organization called WITCH (Women's International Conspiracy from Hell) penned a manifesto that stated nine million liberated women and witches had been put to death by the Church for practicing the ancient

Diana and the Children

This is pretty, but it is only imitation, and neither in form or spirit really equal to the incantations, which are sincere in faith. And it may here be observed in sorrow, yet in very truth, that in a very great number of modern poetical handlings of classic mythic subjects, the writers have, despite all their genius as artists, produced rococo work which will appear to be such to an other generation, simply from their having missed the point, or omitted from ignorance something vital which the folk-lorist would probably not have lost. Achilles may be admirably drawn, as I have seen him, in a Louis XIV. wig with a Turkish scimitar, but still one could wish that the designer had been a little more familiar with Greek garments and weapons.

The Ancient Goddess Cult

While Pan and other Greek gods were finding a new home in Romantic literature, goddesses were enjoying attention as well. Eduard Gerhard, a writer of the time, was one of the first to propose that behind all of the goddesses of ancient Greece stood a single great Mother, venerated before history began. This idea caught fire among the Romantics in 1848 Robert Graves developed the concept of the One Goddess through poetry he also wrote of the three faces of the Goddess as Maiden, Mother, and Crone.

Tana The Moon Goddess

Great license is allowed to painters and poets, but when they take a subject, especially a deep tradition, and fail to perceive its real meaning or catch its point, and simply give us something very pretty, but not so inspired with meaning as the original, it can hardly be claimed that they have done their work as it might, or, in fact, should have been done. I find that this fault does not occur in the Italian or Tuscan witch-versions of the ancient fables on the contrary, they keenly appreciate, and even expand, the antique spirit. Hence I have often had occasion to remark that it was not impossible that in some cases popular tradition, even as it now exists, has been preserved more fully and accurately than we find it in any Latin writer.

Questions to Consider

Abravanel, Jewish apocalyptic writer. Teresa of Avila. The granddaughter of a relapsed converso, Teresa, born in 1515, was related through her mother to one of Avila's most aristocratic families. She entered the Carmelite Order when she was about twenty-one and became a reformer, writer, and mystic. Her works are among the most cherished in Spanish literature. They were written in a simple yet effective style.

The history of the idea of Satan and Satanism

Doctnnally orthodox the good Muslim' has no truck with such matters. Indeed, the conviction that such beliefs and actions are not proper to Islam is so strong that it has even been transmitted to some Western writers about Islam. Many of them claim that these ideas are survivals of pre-Islamic 'animistic1 religions. However, if the previous religions were 'animistic', by which is meant they were based on a belief in spirits, one would expect to find some of these religions existing outside, but adjacent to, areas where Islam had spread. Alternatively one could expect to find them within similar areas that had been converted by Christian rather than Muslim missionaries. But although possession by spirits can be found in nominally Christian areas, neither of the situations that might lay claim to the indigenous nature of possession by spirits can be firmly established. On the contrary, there is counter evidence. One anthropologist of the East African coast, David Parkin, states that the...

The Romantic Movement

simplef' time that was fading away into the past. As the Victorians had a fascination with ancient Greek and Roman pagan culture, the Romantics pitted the pastoral ideas of those uncivilized eras (nature, creativity, and freedom) against the unnatural, stifled, authoritarian world of the modern age. Shelves of new books and poetry dedicated to the old gods of Greece began to appear writers such as Wordsworth, Lord Byron, Keats, and Shelley all devoted their words to the Romantic ideals. Most of these writers considered the Greco Roman gods to be only metaphors, and were more interested in the supposedly-idyllic pastoral society they represented than in their actual worship.

Live But Live Well The Te of Piglet pg

Taoism is not the reject-the-physical-world theory of living that some scholars (and a few Taoists) would have others believe. Even Lao-tse, the most reclusive of Taoist writers, wrote, Honor all under Heaven as your body. To a Taoist, a reject-the-physical-world approach would be an extremist absurdity, impossible to live without dying. Instead, a Taoist might say Carefully observe the natural laws in operation in the world around you, and live by them. From following them, you will learn the morality of modesty, moderation, compassion, and consideration (not just one society's rules and regulations), the wisdom of seeing things as they are (not of merely collecting facts about them) and the happiness of being in harmony, with the Way (which has nothing to do with self-righteous spiritual obsessions and fanaticism). And you will live lightly, spontaneously, and effortlessly.

Foreword To The First Edition

In conclusion, there is one request I wish to make of my readers. Since my Witch Cult in Western Europe appeared I have received many letters containing criticisms, some complimentary, some condemnatory, of that book. If other correspondents honour me with similar private criticisms of the present volume, I ask of them that they will sign their communications, even when the opinions they express are adverse. Anonymous letters, of which I received a number, reflect no credit on their writers.

The Witch Cult In Britain

This is a matter which of late years has exercised the ingenuity of a number of writers. These may be roughly divided into three schools. Firstly, those who take the severely rationalist view that witchcraft was a kind of mass hysteria, arising from psychological causes. Secondly, those who maintain that witchcraft is real, and that it is the worship and service of Satan, in whom its devotees appear to be great believers. This is the attitude taken by that very prolific writer, the late Montague Summers, and his many imitators. Thirdly, that school, headed by anthropologists like Dr. Margaret Murray, which has tried to look at the subject without either superstitious terrors and theological argument on the one hand, or materialistic incredulity on the other. This school of thought maintains that witchcraft is simply the remains of the old pagan religion of Western Europe, dating back to the Stone Age, and that the reason for the Church's persecution of it was that it was a dangerous...

Druidism And The Aryan Celts

I am often asked, Where do the Druids come in Were the witches of the Druid belief I can only say, If we only knew for certain exactly what the Druids believed, I could tell you but there are very few thing we do know about these mysterious people . We are told by ancient writers that the Druids reverenced the sun, and we know that they were the priests of the Celtic people of the Hallstadt Iron Age culture who invaded Britain in the 5 th century B.C. and occupied the southeastern parts. Later, about 250 B.C., Belgic people of the La Tene Iron Age culture invaded Britain and occupied the south, driving the others northwards and westwards. These were Brythons, with some Teutonic blood, and are the Britons Caesar wrote about. La Tene was the Druidic centre of Gaul. About 50 B.C., just after Caesar's unsuccessful invasion, there was another Belgic invasion, and these captured all the country from Salisbury Plain to Surrey. Although a number of people got pushed about in these invasions,...

The Forgeries Of The Canon Episcopi And The Malleus Maleficarum

I have previously referred the reader to H. C. Lea's Materials Towards a History of Witchcraft for the full details of this matter however, as that book is not one which is within easy reach of the general reader, and as the matter is of some importance in the story of the persecution of the witch cult, I will give a brief abstract of it here. Lea quotes a large number of relevant documents to show that the earliest teaching of the Church about the witches' Sabbat differed radically from the parade of horrors for which credence was, and is, demanded by orthodox writers. The foundation for this early teaching is a document called the Canon Episcopi, which was accepted as authoritative until the time of the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum in 1486, which finally threw it overboard, after it had been interpreted and re-interpreted until the final sense in which it was taken was almost the opposite of its original sense. Regino (circa A.D. 906) seems to have been the first publisher...

Foreword By Colin Wilson

What fascinated me about Michael Harrison was his cast of mind - the combination of scholar, antiquary, eccentric and detective there is a certain resemblance to Charles Fort, except that Fort is hard to read, and Michael Harrison is incapable of being unreadable. I saw at once that Michael Harrison is a member of an increasingly rare breed the genuinely dedicated writer. In case that sounds like the conventional compliment of a writer of Introductions, let me elaborate. In the past, the distinction between real writers and commercial hacks was more interesting than today. Montaigne certainly qualifies as a true writer, since he wrote solely to satisfy an inner-impulse. Defoe was, by general admission, a commercial hack. William Blake was a true writer Doctor Johnson was mostly a hack. (After all, he told Boswell that any man who writes for anything but money is a fool.) Most of the Elizabethan playrights probably qualify as hacks. In the past, 'commercialism' - if that is the word -...

Comments on the Foregoing Texts

Is evidently enough Herodias, who was regarded in the beginning as associated with Diana as chief of the witches. This was not, as I opine, derived from the Herodias of the New Testament, but from an earlier replica of Lilith, bear ing the same name. It is, in fact, an identification or twin-Ing of the Aryan and Shemitic Queens of Heaven, or of Night and of Sorcery, and it may be that this was known to the earliest myth-makers. So far back as the sixth century the worship of Herodias and Diana by witches was condemned by a Church Council at Ancyra. Pipernus and other writers have noted the evident identity of Herodias with Lilith. Isis preceded both. 1. In a very recent work by Messrs. Niceforo and Sighele, entitled La Mala Vita a Roma ( Evil Life in Rome ), there is a chapter devoted to the Witches of the Eternal City, of whom the writer says they form a class so hidden that the most Roman of Romans is perhaps ignorant of their existence. This is true of the real Strege, though not...

Chapter The Early Anthropologists Step into the Debate

An obscure writer named Karl Marx quickly adopted and expanded the idea of this Age. Marx thought it logical that an inferior society run by women would have naturally preceded the innately superior ones run by men. Eventually, this concept of a matriarchal age became an integral part of Marxist Social Evolution theory. Though hardly anyone except feminist or Marxist theoreticians talk about it anymore,

What happened next

The Malleus Maleficarum went on to be used as the definitive handbook for the identification and punishment of witches well into the nineteenth century. It was used as a guiding force for religious writers, and for many of the courts trying to condemn accused witches not only for witchcraft but for heresy. The Malleus Maleficarum was also used as a manual for witch-hunters such as Matthew Hopkins, who was famous for his witch-hunting tactics, and the number of witches he had captured.


Here the writer posing as Thessalus presents as revealed mysteries the medicinal discoveries that he will lay out in his work on the power of plants. The sealed inner chamber, the meeting with the god, and the suggestion of a ghostly environment help in this projection. The narrative has much in common with a number of others see 46, with commentary. Thessalus makes strong associations between lecanomancy and necromancy (see 43, 163). Indeed, where the Greek version has power of lecanomancy (14), the Latin version at the corresponding point has necromancy in a crypt, in anticipation of the forthcoming episode. A coincidence obtains between this narrative and a fragment from a Greek novel in which a person expecting an encounter with Asclepius is instead confronted with a ghost (P.Oxy. 416 see Stephens and Winkler 1995, 409-15). The priest apparently uses voces magicae in calling up the god (see 174). For the desire for a direct one-to-one encounter, or sustasis, with a deity in...

The Church Of Satan

Of Christianity and the wrongs done in the name of this religion. Using the figure of Satan is a symbol of this revolt against authority as it was in the romantic tradition, but LaVey denied that the organization worshipped Satan. On the contrary all that there is to worship is deemed to be within the individual. The rebel stance relates to all authority. LaVey wrote that 'He who saith thou shalt to me is my mortal foe' (1969 30, 1 5), and according to one writer in the magazine The Black Ftame who quotes this same dictum, 'A true Satanic society means a population of free-spirited, well-armed, fully-conscious, self-disciplined individuals, who will neither need nor tolerate any external entity protecting them or telling them what they can and cannot do On the other hand, LaVey was a firm believer m order and observing the rale of law, which appears somewhat inconsistent with rebellion against authority.

Obeah And Voodoo

In his book Les Zombis French writer C.H. Dewisme tells about a voodoo murder that happened during the American occupation of Haiti in World War 1. A voodoo priest cast a death spell on an American lieutenant who commanded the police department. This was in Port-au-Prince. The hungan let the lieutenant know that he would die by week's end.

Elijah Hadynn

I was warmly greeted by Elijah Hadynn, at his apartment on East 10th Street, in New York's East Village, when I visited him on the rainy night of April 18, 1969. The interview was arranged by John R. Nichols, editor of STRANGE UNKNOWN MAGAZINE, and a writer on witchcraft himself. He had previously interviewed and written about Mr. Hadynn. I was ushered into a living room which had cushions and pillows arranged alongside the four walls, on the floor, Moroccan style, like my villa in Tangier I told him. Some of his own paintings hung on the walls. I don't believe in lots of furniture he said. We sat on the floor cushions. I told him I had planned to bring you a broom. Laughingly he replied I could have used one.

Wyn Sargent

Wyn Sargent

Wyn Sargent, writer and world traveller from Huntington Beach, California, spent last summer in Asia, part of the time exploring the jungles of Kalimantan (also called Borneo a part of Indonesia). With her was her son, Jmy (pronounced Jimmy), 12, a 7th grader at Harbour View School In Huntington Beach. This is Mrs. Sargent's firsthand report on their adventures among the head-hunters of Kalimantan (Borneo) written exclusively for JUNIOR SCHOLASTIC.

Other Traditions

There seem to have been a number of different processes at work to produce this phenomenon. In several cases known to the present writer, it has been the result of the desire of groups, or founders of groups, to practise pagan witchcraft in ways different from those of mainstream Wicca and without any sense of accountability to the national Wiccan network. In three more, also in personal experience, people genuinely trained in the old-fashioned popular witchcraft described earlier, founded covens in the 1960s which followed the Wiccan model but in which they practised a lot of the older operative magic. As said above, most modern pagan witches employ techmques gained, direcdy or through reading, from this tradition. In 1964 he gained the support of Doreen Valiente, who had spent the years since her breach with Gardner working with pagan witches in Sussex. She had also become a writer upon witchcraft herself, although posing (as Gardner at first had done) as a scholar observing others...

African Witchcraft

In describing the African witchdoctor or fetish-men, one writer Read has said These fetish-men are priest-doctors like those of the ancient Germans. They haw a profound knowledge of herbs, and also of human nature, for they always monopolize the real power in the state. But it is very doubtful whether they possess any secrets save that of extracting virtue and poison from plants.


Ceremonies included prayers, libations and human and animal sacrifices. Victims were burned alive in wickerwork cages, stabbed, impaled on stakes and shot with arrows. The sacrifice of humans outraged the Romans, who outlawed it as barbaric by senatorial decree in 97 B.C.E. Later writers tried to excuse the Druids from participation in sacrifices, saying they did not do the actual killing. This is highly unlikely, given their roles as priests.


The blood-sacrifice took place first at the admission of the neophyte. Originally a sacrifice, it was afterwards joined to the other ceremony of signing the contract, the blood serving as the writing fluid it also seems to be confused in the seventeenth century with the pricking for the Mark, but the earlier evidence is clear. A writer who generalizes on the witchcraft religion and who recognizes the sacrificial nature of the act is Cooper as he wrote in 1617 his evidence belongs practically to the sixteenth century. He says The number of sacrifices in the year is exaggerated by the writers on the subject, but the witches themselves are often quite definite in their information when it happens to be recorded. It appears from their statements that the rite was performed only on certain occasions, either to obtain help or as a thank-offering. Danaeus, speaking of the newly admitted witch, says, 'Then this vngracious and new servant of satan, euery day afterward offreth something of his...

Living Witchcraft

There have been many books written on witchcraft. The early ones were mostly propaganda written by the various Churches to discourage and frighten people from having any connections with what was to them a hated rival - for witchcraft is a religion. Later there were books setting out to prove that this craft had never existed. Some of these books may have been inspired or even written by witches themselves. Latterly there have been many books dealing in a scientific way with witchcraft by such writers as Dr. Margaret Murray, R. Trevor Davis, Christine Hoyle, Arne Runeberg, Pennethorne Hughes and Montague Summers.

Leo Louis Martello

Pagan Male Magazine

Martello earned his living primarily as a writer, graphologist and lecturer. He made numerous public appearances to educate others about the Craft and to speak at major Pagan Wiccan festivals and gatherings. He compared the Craft to an underground spring which has existed for centuries and predates the Judeo-Christian and Muslim faiths and occasionally rises to the surface in small streams and lakes. The modern Craft movement reflects a worldwide rising of this underground spring, coming with such force that it cannot be dammed by enemies. The spiritual force behind the renaissance is comprised of the reincarnated souls of those murdered as Witches by the Inquisition.

Neo Paganism

1900 Witch Covern

British writers Margaret Murray, Robert Graves, and Gerald B. Gardner also helped renew interest in ancient religions and witchcraft. Murray was an Egyptologist (an archaeologist who studies ancient Egypt) who, in the 1920s, wrote extensively about such practices as goddess worship and introduced the concept of the coven, or group of witches (see box on p. 84). Graves was a novelist and poet who based his work on mythology (the study of traditional stories and myths). In 1947 he wrote The White Goddess, an anthropological and mythological study of the ancient mother goddess who ruled the moon and controlled fertility (the ability of humans, animals, and plants to produce offspring). Graves claimed that poetry originated from the ritual worship of the White Goddess in ancient societies. Whereas Murray and Graves conducted research and wrote books, Gardner set out to revive the actual practice of witchcraft after becoming inspired by Murray's theories (see box). He claimed to have...


Turquoise rituals are for integration of heart and mind, feelings and thoughts and the synthesis of wisdom and experience. Turquoise is used for successfully combining different aspects of life or two different career strands for compassion and altruism for increasing healing abilities for maintaining impartiality when making difficult decisions and judgements and for seeing other dimensions. It is the colour of artists, sculptors, dancers, writers and poets, and can bring inspiration and originality increasing artistic ability.

Romantic Folklore

These developments have been well studied, notably by John Burrow, Robert Ackerman and Gillian Bennett (Burrow, 1966 Ackerman, 1987 Bennett, 1994). The same scholars have noted that the impulse which drove Tylor and Frazer was a hostility to all forms of religious belief and practice, which they hoped to discredit as part of the development of a wiser and more rational society. Frazer's attempt to prove the former existence of a universal ancient pagan mythology of a dying and resurrecting god, m particular, struck deliberately at the central claims of Chnsti-arnty. This recent research has also delineated very well the failure of the intellectual enterprise of which these writers had formed part. Between 1900 and 1930 both anthropologists and histonans of religion lost faith in the notion of folk practices as authentic survivals and in the method of equating them with beliefs and customs in modem tribal societies, regardless of context. Folklore studies failed to establish themselves...

Simon Magus

He himself was the supreme God. Luna is elsewhere known as Helena and is said to have been a Phoenician prostitute saved by Simon from a Tyrian brothel. For Simon Helena was his own Thought (Ennoia) she had created the intermediate powers of the angels and archangels, who had in turn created the world but then enviously shut Ennoia herself into her human body. Simon had descended to the earth in order to free Helena and all mankind from the intermediate powers. He too projected himself as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit and as virgin-born (see 14). He evidently adapted the gospel to suit himself. Christian writers repeatedly identify the performance of miracles and free love as characteristic of his priests. Christian heresiologists came to regard Simon as the founder of the heresy of gnosticism. The battle between Peter and Simon culminated in a contest of powers before Nero. Peter won this when he broke Simon's flying spell and sent him crashing to...

The Baron

Baron Here we go again I never thought of that either yet it's perfectly logical. Wasn't there a case in the newspapers recently by a descendant of one of General Ouster's men who was tried for treason His descendant fought in the courts to have his ancestor's name exonerated. He won. He, through the help of a writer, proved that General Custer was an incompetent, vainglorious, bumbling idiot. It shouldn't be more difficult to prove the same about the Salem sadists. I sincerely pray that some descendant of a so-called witch, one who can prove it genealogically, reads this and acts upon it. Baron I have a married son. Both he and his wife are very happy. They get a big kick out of belonging to our New York coven, their underground religion as they call it. He's an attorney and his wife is a freelance writer and has also done interior decorating. Both firmly believe in the power of -thought. Both consider themselves witches. The reason none of us let others, know is because we feel that...


Every contemporary writer who gives a general view of the religion and ritual observes the witches' powers over human fertility. Boguet says, 'Ils font encor cacher & retirer les Since the days of Reginald Scot it has been the fashion of all those writers who disbelieved in the magical powers of witches to point to the details of the sexual intercourse between the Devil and the witches as proof positive of hysteria and hallucination. This is not the attitude of mind of the recorders who heard the evidence at the trials. 'Les confessions des Sorciers, que i'ay eu en main, me font croire qu'il en est quelque chose dautant qu'ils ont tous recogneu, qu'ils auoient est couplez auec le Diable, et que la semence qu'il iettoit estoit fort froide Ce qui est conforme ce qu'en rapporte Paul Grilland, et les Inquisiteurs de la foy.' 4 It pleaseth their new Maister oftentimes to offer himselfe familiarly vnto them, to dally and lye with them, in token of their more neere coniunction, and as it...

As a Human Being

Danaeus in 1575 summarizes the evidence and says of the Devil, 'he appeareth vnto them in likenesse of a man, insomuch that it hapneth many tymes, that among a great company of men, the Sorcerer only knoweth Satan, that is present, when other doo not know him, although they see another man, but who or what he is they know not'. 2 De Lancre says, 'On a obserue de tout temps que lors qu'il veut receuoir quelcun a faire pacte auec luy, il se presente tousiours en homme'. 3 Cooper states that 'the Wizards and Witches being met in a place and time appointed, the devil appears to them in humane shape'. 4 Even a modern writer, after studying the evidence, acknowledges that the, witches 'seem to have been undoubtedly the victims of unscrupulous and designing knaves, who personated Satan '. 5

The haunted chamber

He developed an interest in reading and contemplation (the act of thinking or meditating about something thoughtfully). Although he was often isolated, he had a pleasant childhood, adored by his mother and two sisters and supported by relatives as he grew into adulthood. In 1821 Hawthorne's prosperous uncles, the Mannings, sent him to Bowdoin College, where fellow students were poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow future U.S. president Franklin Pierce and Horatio Bridge, who would later finance one of Hawthorne's publications. After graduating from Bowdoin in 1825, Hawthorne returned to Salem and lived with his mother for twelve years. He spent most of his time alone in what he called a haunted chamber, developing his skills as a writer and discovering the themes that later became the trademarks of his works. In 1838 he met Sophia Peabody, to whom he confided, If ever I should have a biographer, he ought to make great mention of this chamber in my memoirs, because so much of my lonely...


The rain-making powers of the witches have hardly been noted by writers on the subject, for by the time the records were made the witches were credited with the blasting of fertility rather than its increase. Yet from what remains it is evident that the original meaning of much of the ritual was for the production of fertilizing rain, though both judges and witnesses believed that it was for storms and hail. 'that the elements are obedient to witches, and at their commandement or that they may at their pleasure send raine, haile, tempests, thunder, lightening when she being but an old doting woman, casteth a flint stone ouer hir left shoulder, towards the west, or hurleth a little sea sand vp into the element, or wetteth a broome sprig in water, and sprinkleth the same in the aire or diggeth a pit in the earth, and putting water therein, stirreth it about with hir finger or boileth hogs bristles or laieth sticks acrosse vpon a banke, where neuer a drop of water is or burieth sage till...

Names Of Witches

If Christianity had obtained the hold on the people which the ecclesiastical writers would have its believe, the name Mary should surely have been the most common, but it hardly occurs in Great Britain before 1645, while Marion is hardly used after that date. This looks as though Marion were the earlier form, and Mary may therefore be merely the contraction of the longer name.

The Black Mass

I have previously, in the chapter headed Magic Thinking , remarked that there was (and is) a type of magic which is Judeo-Christian in phraseology and in theological outlook, and that this type of magic was practised by priests among others namely, that magic which seeks to invoke God and His angels (in the case of the Qabalah), or God the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, Christ, the Virgin, and the Saints (in the case of Christianised rituals), to give the practitioner power over demons, in order to compel the latter to carry out his wishes. I have also pointed out in what way this type of ceremonial magic differs from witch-craft. Nevertheless, many writers about witchcraft accuse witches of performing perverted Christian ceremonies, notably a mockery of the Mass, which they call the Black Mass . Hence, in this chapter 1 propose to enquire into what the Black Mass really was (and for all I know, is) who were the people who really performed such a ceremony and what was the psychology of...

The Mark

The writers on witchcraft, particularly the legal authorities, recognize the value of the Mark as proof of witchcraft, and some differentiate between the two forms the witches themselves made a distinction between the two, the natural being considered inferior to the artificial. on the shoulder, the buttock, the thigh, and other extraordinary positions. As a rule they are functionless. ' Polythelia occurs in both sexes according to Bruce, 'Of 315 individuals taken indiscriminately and in succession, 7.619 per cent. presented supernumerary nipple 9.11 per cent. of 207 men examined in succession presented supernumerary nipple and 4.807 per cent. of 104 women.' He concludes that, 'according to present observations at least, supernumerary nipples occur much more frequently in the male than in the female.' 6 Cameron tabulates the positions of the supernumerary nipple in 105 cases 196 were situated in thorax, 5 in axilla, 2 in back, 1 on shoulder, 1 outside of thigh.' 7 All writers on the...


In this book, encouraged by many a dead and living writer, I have endeavoured to state the conditions in which these essential questions were first asked - and (to a much larger extent than many think) were answered. However, there are two writers on Witchcraft whom (with their respective publishers) I wish specially to thank for permission to quote from their books the late Mr Pennethorne Hughes and Messrs Longman, for permission to quote from Witchcraft and (the Executors of) the late Mr T.C. Lethbridge and Messrs Routledge & Kegan Paul, for permission to quote from Witches Investigating an Ancient Religion. I must also acknowledge my deep debt to two other books, both of which treat of the Fertility Religion only incidentally the late Sir F.M. Stenton's Anglo-Saxon England, my opinion of which is sufficiently indicated, I trust, by the frequency and length of my references to it in my book and -once again -Professor L.R. Palmer's The Latin Language, the one indispensable handbook,...

Further reading

Adler, Margot (1946- ) American Pagan, author and journalist, Adler is the first writer to chronicle in detail the emergence and evolution of Paganism in the United States. The results of her research, Drawing Down the Moon (1979 1986 1995), make up a meticulous landmark study of a highly complex and diversified religious movement. In Washington, politics and religion came together for Adler. She devoted extensive coverage to environmental issues, which stimulated her interest in nature writers such as Thoreau. She saw a connection between environmental issues and religion the Judeo Christian view that it is humans' right to have dominion over the earth seemed flawed and had led to exploitation of nature and the earth. In contrast, Paganism and animistic religions viewed humankind as a part of nature equal with all other creatures and parts.

The Feast

In a certain number of cases it is said that the food eaten at the feasts was of an unsatisfying nature. This statement is usually made in the general descriptions given by contemporary writers it is rarely found in the personal confessions. When it does so occur, it is worth noting that the witch is generally a young girl. If this were always the case, it would be quite possible that then, as now, dancing and excitement had a great effect on the appetite, and that the ordinary amount of food would appear insufficient.

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Oung Goodman Brown, a short story by nineteenth-cen-I tury American fiction writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (see biography entry), was based on the history of his Puritan ancestors and the New England of his own day. Hawthorne documented Puritan hypocrisy in many of his stories (which he called tales ), such as The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of Seven Gables (1851). One of his best-known tales is Young Goodman Brown (1835), which tells the story of a young, devout Puritan named Goodman Brown. One evening he leaves his wife, Faith, at home in Salem while he takes a walk in the woods. Disappointed to learn that others have been on the path before him, he happens upon a witches' sabbath, where he is shocked to see his own wife. Sick at heart, he returns to Salem the next morning. He has been changed from a happy and youthful man to a confused and bitter man, who goes to his grave convinced that the world is full of sinners.


The original edition is much different from this one. The Zen Koans, Haiku & Christian Thoughts are the same, but I removed many selections from the Tao of Pooh and the Te of Piglet, because many represented the sole thoughts of Benjamin Hoff (a recent writer) and were not the retold timeless stories of old Taoists (which I kept in this volume). This amounted to about 5 pages being removed out of 40 from the Third Volume. I will put those removed selections into a file on the web-site for observing, but not for downloading. I have recently added all the selections in Zen and the Gospel, Scots Gaelic Poems, Three Random Pieces, Is God A Taoist , Wit and Wisdom of Islam and Various Other Quotes. The end result is a more diversity and intriguing stories and Druidical one-liners.

Signs And Symbols

A frequent allegation is made against witches by the sillier type of writer that they seek to desecrate Christian churches, and to wreck Christian graveyards. Did these people but know it, there should be few in this country more interested in the preservation of our old cathedrals and churches than the members of the witch cult, because it is in those very cathedrals and churches that some of the most interesting secret signs of the cult are to be found.

Tools Of Learning

Wiccan books, as teachers, are quite similar. Experience and training have created specific ideals concerning Wicca within each book's writer, and these ideals are clearly presented within her or his books. Divergences of opinion are natural in experts in any field and shouldn't dismay those who are confronted by them.

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