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Puck is the Lord of the Greenwood, the Spirit of Albion, the Spirit of the Island of Graymayre. He is probably the last of the Old Ones, those who inhabited the Island in the days before the users of iron came. He keeps the Old Faith and does not suffer fools, which is why he is thought of as tricky; but is a good and true friend to all who try to keep the Old Ways honestly. He will teach the language of the wild creatures and of the trees, but he must trust you first.

Slade's "Wild Rite of the Mother" features Puck. He speaks the following words (the first two sentences are taken from Kipling; the remainder is Slade's composition):

I am the Old One. My voice is deeper than three cows lowing.

I keep the Wild Magic. I am Pan. I am Herne. I am the Lord of the Greenwood, Friend of Trees and Wild Creatures. I come with the Wolf, the first teacher to this rite. I bring the Stag of Seven Tines to stand Watch Ward.

(The rite then describes the music of the Earth.)

Deep in the rocks; deep in the Woods; Underground and Overground. Under the sky and beneath the Sea, the Pulse is Beating. The Earth Sings.

You can hear it if you listen. The Crystals in the rocks tune to it. The Plants and Trees grow to it. The waters flow to it.

See FAIRIES; NATURE spirits.

Wicca Great Rite Sex

quirin (also quirus) In folklore, a stone said to have the powers of a truth serum and highly valued by witches and magicians. When placed beneath a pillow, the quirin causes a person to talk in his sleep and confess his "rogueries." The stone allegedly is found in the nests of either the lapwing or the hoopoe, two Old World species of birds often confused in earlier centu ries. The lapwing, a species of plover, exists in Europe and Asia, while the hoopoe, related to the kingfisher, lives in Europe, Asia and Africa. Both are crested but they are differently colored: the lapwing is predominantly gray and white, while the hoopoe is orange-gold, black and white. See stones.

Ravenwolf, Silver (1956- ) American Witch and author, known especially for her books on the Craft for teenagers.

Silver Ravenwolf—her Craft name—was born Jenine E. Trayer on September 11, 1956. Her father was a Lutheran, and her mother attended the First Christian Church Disciples of Christ, a Baptist offshoot. Ravenwolf was 14 when her 20-year-old cousin Tess gave her a deck of Tarot cards and also introduced her to the concept of reincarnation and to the Craft via Diary of a Witch, the autobiography of sybil Leek.

By age 17, Ravenwolf was involved in the Craft. She received her first degree initiation in November 1991 from Bried Foxsong of Sacred Hart. She received second and third degree initiations in the Temple of Hecate Triskele of the Caledonii Tradition. On June 29, 1996, she was el-dered by Lord Serphant at the Puff Gathering in North Carolina. She heads the Black Forest Circle and Seminary, a North American organization of 38 clans, each of which includes several covens. Her hearthstone coven is Coven of the Omega Wolf.

Ravenwolf has written more than 28 nonfiction and fiction books. She also paints, makes jewelry and crafts, does professional photography and professional astrology. Her breakout book was To Ride a Silver Broomstick: New Generation Witchcraft, published in 1994. Teen Witch: Wicca for a New Generation was published in 1998 and tapped a growing interest in the Craft among young people.

Other nonfiction books written by Ravenwolf are Hex Craft: Dutch Country Pow-wow Magick (1995); To Stir a Magic Cauldron: Witch's Guide to Casting and Conjuring (1996); The Rune Oracle (1996); Angels: Companions in Magick (1996); American Folk Magick; Charms, Spells and Herbals (1999); To Light a Sacred Flame: Practical Witchcraft for the Millennium (1999); The Rune Mysteries (1999); Silver's Spells for Prosperity (1999); Halloween: Customs, Recipes and Spells (1999); Witches Runes Kit (1999); Teen Witch Kit: Everything You Need to Know to Make Magic! (2000); Silver's Spells for Love: Getting It. Keeping It. Tossing It. (2001); Solitary Witch: The Ultimate Book of Shadows for the New Generation (20010: Silver's Spells for Abundance

(2005); A Witch's Notebook: 9 Lessons in Witchcraft (2005); and Mindlight: Secrets of Energy, Magic and Manifestation

Read, Margaret (d. 1590) One of three women ever to be executed by burning in England on charges of witchcraft. Margaret Read lived in King's Lynn, East Anglia, England.

Read was convicted of murdering her husband by witchcraft, a crime considered to be petty treason and punishable by burning rather than the more traditional hanging. She was burned in the Tuesday Market in King's Lynn. Her heart exploded, splattering the wall of a nearby house with her blood. A heart in a carved Egyptian diamond pattern was made on the wall to commemorate the event.

red The color of BLOOD, health, vigor, sexual passion and aggression, red has had magical significance since the time of ancient Egypt. Egyptians linked red to death and to an evil dragon, Typhon; they mocked redheaded men in certain religious rites. Red is the color of the Greek and Roman phallic god, Priapus, and the god of war, Mars. The Old Testament links sin to the color scarlet: "Though your sins be scarlet . . ." (Isaiah 1:18). Because it is the color of blood, red is used in the trappings of ritual blood SACRIFICE.

Red is also associated with witches. It is a widespread folk belief that witches have red hair, perhaps because red hair is unusual. In some places, it is unlucky to see people with red hair: fishermen in Scotland and Ireland believe they will catch no fish if they spot a red-haired woman on the way to their boats. In old Irish lore, witches were believed to don red caps before flying through the air to their SABBATS. They could turn pieces of straw into red pigs, which they sold at the market to unsuspecting customers. If the pigs crossed running water as they were driven home, they changed back into straw. According to another folk belief, a witch's soul pops out of her mouth in the form of a red mouse.

Red works in CHARMS against witches. The Pennsylvania Dutch draw red lines around barns to keep witches out (see HEx). In Bohemia, it is believed that a charm tied in a red cloth and hung around the neck will protect one from bewitchment. Other charms to repel witches include red-painted carts and wreaths of rowan tied with red threads. Braided red cords or ropes hung in stables force witches to stop and count each thread before they can harm animals, according to one popular folk belief.

With its biblical association with sin, red figures prominently in old tales of witches' sabbats and Black Masses (see BLACK MASS). Abigail Williams, one of the accused SALEM WITCHES in 1692, said witches consumed "red drink and red bread" at their sabbats. The priests who officiated at blasphemous Black Masses often wore red garments and slippers and read from red-and-black books. In 1895 Prince Scipio Borghese of Italy was discovered to have a chamber in his palace which was devoted to satanic masses, furnished with crimson-and-gold chairs and scarlet-and-black silk curtains (see SATANISM).

In contemporary Witchcraft, red is associated primarily with health, vigor and passion. In healing it is called "the great energizer" and is said to stimulate the blood. Red CANDLES and cords (see KNOTS) are used in magic spells.

Redcap One of the most malignant and vampire-like goblins of the folklore of the border counties between England and Scotland. Redcap lives in various old and ruined castles and peel towers, where he takes delight in wreaking evil upon unwitting visitors. He keeps his cap dyed red from human blood.

One description of Redcap is as follows: ". . . a short thickset old man, with long prominent teeth, skinny fin gers armed with talons like eagles, large eyes of a fiery red color, hair streaming down his shoulders, iron boots, a pikestaff in his left hand, and a red cap on his head."

If one encountered Redcap, it was useless to try to resist him by brute human strength. He could be repelled, however, by making the sign of the cross or reciting Biblical scripture.

Lord Soulis of HERMITAGE CASTLE reputedly had a Redcap as a FAMILIAR. In European lore, redcaps have a milder nature and are more like the helpful household brownies, who clean and do chores.

See MOTHER REDCAP; RED.

Regardie, Francis Israel (1907-1983) Occultist, psychotherapist and one-time secretary of ALEISTER CROWLEY.

Born in England on November 17, 1907, Francis Israel Regardie (he dropped the use of his first name later on) spent most of his life in the United States, emigrating there at age 13. He became fascinated with occultism and the activities and writings of Crowley and secured a position as Crowley's secretary in 1928. From that year to 1934, Regardie traveled around Europe with Crowley. Like many of Crowley's friends and associates, Regardie eventually suffered a falling out with him.

Regardie's works are important influences in WITCHCRAFT and PAGANISM. He wrote numerous books on occultism, the first of which were The Tree of Life and The Garden of Pomegranates, both of which were published in 1932. In 1934, the year of his falling-out with Crowley, he joined the Stella Matutina temple of the HERMETIC ORDER OF THE Golden Dawn. He left after a few years and violated his oath of secrecy by publishing the complete rituals of the Golden Dawn in a four-volume encyclopedia, The Golden Dawn: an Encyclopedia of Practical Occultism, between 1937 and 1940. The work has been revised and reissued several times. Regardie broke his oath because he believed the teachings of the Golden Dawn should be revealed to the public. The Golden Dawn material has been incorporated into numerous Pagan and Wiccan rituals.

Regardie became a chiropractor. He served in the U.S. Army during World War II, then settled in southern California, where he worked as a psychotherapist. He authored a biography of Crowley, The Eye in the Triangle, and coau-thored, with P. R. Stephenson, another Crowley associate, The Legend of Aleister Crowley, both of which appeared in 1970. Regardie always acknowledged Crowley's faults but defended Crowley as "a great mystic, sincere, dedicated and hard working."

Regardie's other books include: My Rosicrucian Adventure (1936; 1971); Middle Pillar (1945; 1970); The Romance of Metaphysics (1946); The Art of Healing (1964); Roll Away the Stone (1964); Tree of Life; A Study in Magic (1969); What is the Qabalah? (1970); To Invoke Your Higher Self (1973); and Twelve Steps to Spiritual Enlightenment (1975).

Rémy, Nicholas (1530-1616) French lawyer, demon-ologist and determined witch-hunter who claimed to have sent 900 witches to their deaths over a 10-year period in Lorraine. So convinced was Rémy of the evil and doings of witches that he compiled his "facts" into a book, Demonolatry, which became a leading handbook for witch-hunters.

Rémy was born in Charmes to a family of distinguished lawyers. He followed the family tradition and studied law at the University of Toulouse. He practiced in Paris from 1563 to 1570, when he was appointed Lieutenant General of Vosges, filling a vacancy created by his retiring uncle. In 1575 he was appointed secretary to Duke Charles III of Lorraine. Besides being a lawyer, Remy also was a historian and poet and wrote several works on history.

As a youth, Rémy had witnessed the trials of witches, which may have shaped his later opinions. It was not until 1582 that he took up his own personal crusade against witches. Several days after refusing to give money to a beggar woman, his eldest son died. Rémy was convinced the woman was a witch and successfully prosecuted her for bewitching his son to death. Like his contemporary Jean Bodin, Rémy believed in DEVIL'S PACTS, wild SABBATS and maleficia against men and beasts. He was credulous, believing the most fantastic stories about DEMONS raising mountains in the blink of an eye, making rivers run backwards, putting out the stars and making the sky fall. Like Bodin and other authorities, he also believed that witches should suffer and be burned as punishment.

In 1592, after a decade of prosecuting witches, Rémy retired to the countryside to escape the plague. There he compiled Demonolatry, which was published in 1595 in Lyons. The book includes notes and details from his many trials and his assertions about witches' black MAGIC and SpELLS, the various ways in which they poisoned people (see POISONS) and their infernal escapades with demons and the DEVIL. He devoted much space to describing satanic pacts and the feasting, dancing and sexual orgies that took place at sabbats. He described how the Devil threw people into his service, first with cajoling and promises of wealth, power, love or comfort, then by threats of disaster or death. He backed up his statements with "evidence" obtained from confessions, such as the following:

At Guermingen, 19th Dec., 1589, Antoine Welch no longer dared oppose the Demon in anything after he threatened to twist his neck unless he obeyed his commands, for he seemed on the very point of fulfilling his threat . . . Certainly there are many examples in pagan histories of houses being cast down, the destruction of the crops, chasms in the earth, fiery blasts and other such disastrous tempests stirred up by Demons for the destruction of men for no other purpose than to bind their minds to the observance of some new cult and to establish their mastery more and more firmly over them.

Therefore we may first conclude that it is no mere fable that witches meet and converse with Demons in very person. Secondly, it is clear that Demons use the two most powerful weapons of persuasion against the feeble wills of mortals, namely, hope and fear, desire and terror; for they well know how to induce and inspire such emotions.

Remy's claim of sending 900 witches to their deaths cannot be corroborated by existing records; he cites only 128 cases himself in his book. Nevertheless, his accumulated "facts" seemed reasoned and beyond refute to the audience of his day. Demonolatry was an immediate success and was reprinted eight times, including two German translations. It became a leading handbook of witch-hunters, replacing the Malleus Maleficarum in some parts of Europe.

While he influenced the unhappy fate of countless innocent victims, Remy continued in the comfortable service of the Duke until his death in 1612, secure in the righteousness of his work.

FuRTHER READING:

Baroja, Julio Caro. The World of the Witches. 1961. Reprint,

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975. Lea, Henry Charles. Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft.

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1939. Remy, Nicolas. Demonolatry. Secaucus, N.J.: University Books, 1974.

rings amulets of power, strength, divinity, sovereignty and protection. In legend, they are also TALISMANS of MAGIC, enabling their wearers to perform supernatural feats or become invisible. The origins of magic rings are not known, but they appear in ancient mythology. Mar-duk, the champion of the Babylonian gods, holds a ring in his portrayal as a warrior; in Greek myth, Jove released the Titan Prometheus from his chains but required him to wear one link on his finger.

The legendary King Solomon had a magic ring, etched with a hexagram and the real name of God, which enabled him to conjure the djinn (demons) and force them to work for him. One of Satan's fiercest demons, Asmo-deus, craftily convinced Solomon to lend him the magic ring, whereupon Asmodeus threw Solomon out of Jerusalem and set himself up as king. He threw the ring into the sea. Solomon recovered it from a fish's belly and restored himself to his throne. He imprisoned Asmodeus in a jar.

Ancient Egyptians and Hebrews used signet rings, which were inscribed with names or magic words or phrases (see NAMES of power). The signet ring is still a symbol of authority in both church and state. In the Middle Ages, rings inscribed with magic formulas were popular amulets to ward off illness. In England, from the early Middle Ages to the 16th century, "cramp rings" were popular as cures for epilepsy and related disorders. Originally, the rings were fashioned from the coins given by the monarch in Good Friday devotions. Later, rings were simply made and then blessed and rubbed by the monarch. Some cramp rings were exported to Europe. In

World War I, German soldiers wore rings inscribed with runes as protection against wounds and death.

Rings set with semiprecious and precious STONES, cast in a precious metal, are amulets bearing the particular properties of the stone. Red jasper, for example, is associated with BLOOD, and soldiers in ancient times wore rings of red jasper to prevent bleeding to death from wounds. AMBER is one of many stones that protect against the EVIL EYE, while cat's eye and ruby protect against witchcraft. Many stones are medicinal amulets that protect against various diseases and disorders.

Many modern Witches wear silver rings bearing runic inscriptions, the names of deities, a pentacle, a crescent moon, images of GODDESS or other representations of the Craft.

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