Guazzo Francesco Maria

area and found Gruber's hair and several of his bones, all widely scattered: the skull, three ribs, two long bones and two small bones.

It was assumed that Gruber had been killed by Indians, giving the case a bizarre twist. In the end, it seemed that his sorcery had failed him.

FuRTHER READING:

Simmons, Marc. Witchcraft in the Southwest: Spanish and Indian Supernaturalism on the Rio Grande. Lincoln.: University of Nebraska Press, 1974.

Guazzo, Francesco-Maria (17th century) Italian friar who became well known as a demonologist and opponent of witches. Francesco-Maria Guazzo is best known as the author of Compendium Maleficarum (Handbook of Witches), a leading inquisitor's guide.

Little is known about Guazzo's life. He joined the Brethren of St. Ambrose ad Nemus and St. Barnabas in Milan. He wrote the Compendium in response to a request from Cardinal Federico Borromeo, the archbishop of Milan. The book, published in 1608, draws upon the works of other demonologists and repeats some of the superstitions of the time, including the assertion that Martin Luther was born from the union of the DEVIL and a nun.

Guazzo served as a judge and assessor in witchcraft trials. In 1605, he was sent to Cleves to advise in a case involving the Serene Duke John William of Julich-Cleves. The duke accused a 90-year-old warlock, John, of overlooking and ensorcelling him (see EVIL EYE and sorcery). John confessed that he used CHARMs and runes to afflict the duke with a wasting sickness and "frenzy." He was found guilty and sentenced to be burned at the stake. Before the sentence could be carried out, John committed suicide by slicing his throat with a knife. According to Guazzo, the Devil himself stood at John's side as he died.

The duke asked Guazzo to assist in other witchcraft cases in Germany, which he did.

The Compendium became the leading witch handbook in Italy and has been compared to the Malleus Maleficarum.

FuRTHER READING:

Guazzo, Francesco-Maria. Compendium Maleficarum. Secaucus, N.J.: University Books, 1974.

Gwydion the Wizard In Welsh Celtic mythology, the heroic wizard (see wizard) and bard of North Wales, whose tales are told in The Mabinogion. Gwydion the Wizard was the son of Don, the Welsh goddess who is a counterpart of the Irish Celtic goddess Danu. He was one of three children of Don; the other two were Gofannon the Smith, and a daughter, ARIANRoD, a lunar goddess of dawn and the mother of Llew. Gwydion ruled science, light and reason. He is associated with the rainbow and is described as the British Hermes.

He was a skillful magician, a bringer of cultural gifts from the gods to man and a clever thief. He is said to be the father of April Fool's Day, for on April 1 he conjured great armies to fool Arianrod into giving arms to Llew Llaw Gyffes. He helped Math, god of wealth, create a bride for Llew: Blodeuwed, the "flowerlike." Blodeu-wed fell in love with another man and betrayed Llew to a treacherous death. The Milky Way is said to be the tracks of Gwydion searching for the dead Llew.

Gwydion used his MAGIC against the men of southern Wales and was punished in return. He used magic illegally to acquire a herd of Pryderi's swine and was made to do penances by Math.

Gwydion eventually slew Pryderi, son of Pwyll, who was ruler of the underworld and the first husband of Rhi-annon. In Celtic magic, he plays a role in initiation rites.

Gypsies Nomadic, dark-skinned people who probably emerged out of northern India around the 10th century and spread throughout Europe, the British Isles and eventually America. Gypsy tradition has little in the way of its own religious beliefs but is steeped in MAGIC and superstition. From their earliest known appearance in Europe in the 15 th century, Gypsies have been renowned practitioners of magical arts, and they undoubtedly influenced folk magic wherever they went. During the Renaissance, they were associated with witches and wiTCHCRAFT, and many were persecuted and executed as such. In addition, Gypsies were met with hostility and suspicion from populations wherever they went, which added to their persecution, banishment and deportation. In England, it became unlawful to be a Gypsy in 1530; the law was not repealed until 1784.

The first record of Gypsies in Europe is in 1417 in Germany, although it is quite likely that they arrived in Europe much earlier. They came as Christian penitents and claimed to be exiles from a land called "Little Egypt." Europeans called them "Egyptians," which became corrupted as "Gypsies." Their language, Romany, is related to Sanskrit, and many of their customs have similarities to Hindu customs. The Gypsies also absorbed the religious and folk customs of the lands through which they traveled, and many of their practices contain strong Christian and pagan elements. Very little is known about early Gypsy practices; most of the present knowledge comes from observations and records from the 19th century on.

It is not known what led the Gypsies to leave India. Various legends exist as to their origins and why they were condemned to wander the earth: They were Egyptians scattered by Yahweh (Jehovah, or God); they were survivors of Atlantis, left without a homeland; they had refused to help the Virgin Mary during her flight to Egypt; they had forged three nails for Christ's cross of crucifixion. Voltaire proposed that they were descendants of the priests of Isis and followers of AsTARTE.

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