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Foxwood, Orion. The Faery Teachings. Areata, Calif.: RJ Stewart Books, 2007.

-. The Tree of Enchantment: Wisdom of Faery Seership.

York Beach, Me.: Samuel Weiser, 2008.

Frost, Gavin (1930- ) and Yvonne (1931- ) Witches, authors and founders of the Church AND SCHOOL OF WlCCA, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Frosts have steadfastly followed their own path in the Craft, and whenever that took them out of mainstream views, they have weathered much criticism from others in the Wiccan/Pagan communities. Though the Frosts are Witches, they do not consider themselves Pagans, because they do not worship nature or named deities. They are

Wk open about their Craft and view their work as a needed "information booth" to Pagans and non-Pagans alike.

Gavin Frost was born in 1930 in Staffordshire, England, to a Welsh family. The seeds of his interest in Witchcraft were planted in childhood, during which he spent holidays in Wales, a country steeped in folk magic, Witchcraft and the occult. From 1949 to 1952, he attended London University, graduating with a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a doctorate in physics and math.

At the university, Gavin joined an informal group formed by T. C. Lethbridge, a demonstrator (laboratory assistant) who was interested in magic, the occult, dowsing and sacred stone sites (Lethbridge went on to write Witches, published in 1962, and other works). The group decided to undertake an INITIATION and sought the help of a pursuivant of the duke of Norfolk, who, as Earl Marshal, is the heraldic head of England. The duke's four pursuivants look after heraldic designs, and their offices correspond to the four directions. The initiation was carried out at a stone circle in Boskednan, Cornwall, in 1951. The initiates received a mark cut onto their wrists.

While working on infrared missiles in the Salisbury Plain for an aerospace company—a job which required nighttime hours—Frost had ample time to explore Stone-henge and its environs during the day. He became further intrigued about the megaliths and their mysterious builders and was led to the Craft.

Gavin lived in Germany from 1966 to 1968, where he joined the Zauberers, an occult group of sorcerers in the Bayrischen Naehe, south of Munich. The group's required initiation was to hike up to the top of a mountain in the middle of the night in winter. The test of this centered on one's ability to generate one's own body heat, like the tumo taught to Tibetan monks. Gavin was able to pass the snow line, but did not reach the mountaintop. Nonetheless, he qualified as a Zauberer.

Gavin was married from 1954 to 1969. He has two children, a son and a daughter, from that marriage.

Yvonne Frost was born Yvonne Wilson in 1931 in Los Angeles into a "foot-washing Baptist" family. After struggling through her childhood and teen years to come to terms with the Baptist faith, Yvonne began a comparative study of religions in her early adult years to find a more compatible faith. Her family heritage includes two long lines of Witches going back for generations to the Cumberland Gap of Kentucky and to Clan Gunn of Scotland.

In 1950 she married a military man and spent time in Germany. When the marriage ended 10 years later (there were no children), she enrolled in Fullerton Junior College in Fullerton, California, to earn an A.A. degree in secretarial skills. She graduated in 1962.

Meanwhile, Gavin's career in the aerospace industry had taken him to Ontario, Canada, and then to California. He and Yvonne met in the 1960s in the halls of their mutual employer, a major aerospace company in

Anaheim. She was involved in Spiritualism and was exploring spiritual alternatives, and he was involved in Witchcraft. Together they studied psychic development with a Spiritualist teacher. A career move took them to St. Louis, where they pursued the Craft and Yvonne was initiated into the Celtic tradition.

Seeing the confusion about Witchcraft and Wicca in the general population in the United States, and reading of negative behaviors being called Witchcraft, they decided they would try to change the popular image of the religion they had espoused. They coauthored a book, The Witch's Bible, but could not find a publisher for it. As an alternative, they organized the material as correspondence courses and advertised the School of Wicca in magazines. The federal recognition of the church followed in 1972. The Frosts married in 1970; they have one daughter, Bron-wyn, who works with them at the church and school.

In 1972, Gavin left his aerospace career to devote himself full time, along with Yvonne, to the numerous activities of the church and school. They moved to Salem, Missouri, and then to New Bern, North Carolina, in 1974-75. In 1996 they moved to Hinton, West Virginia.

Both Gavin and Yvonne have doctor of divinity degrees from the Church of Wicca. Gavin serves as archbishop and Yvonne as bishop. They are the Arch-Flamen and Flamenca, respectively, of the Western Neighborhood, or high priest and high priestess of the eternal flame. They have taken vows of poverty.

The Frosts do healing work and have been active public speakers. They are prolific authors, with more than 22 books and monographs. The Witch's Bible remains one of their best-sellers and has been periodically updated. In 1991 it was retitled Good Witch's Bible. Other notable titles are The Magic Power of Witchcraft (1976), Helping Yourself with Astromancy (1980), Astral Travel (1982), Tantric Yoga (1989), the first Western book on the subject to be translated into Hindi, Good Witch's Guide to Life (1991), The Prophet's Bible (1991), Who Speaks for the Witch? (1991), Witch Words (1993), Good Witch's Bible (1999), The Witch's Magical Handbook (2000), The Witch's Book of Magical Ritual (2002), A Witch's Guide to Psychic Healing: Applying Traditional Therapies, Rituals, and Systems (2003), The Solitary Wiccan (2004) and Good Witches Fly Smoothly: Surviving Witchcraft (2006).

Gallows Hill The execution site of those condemned as witches in the infamous witch trails in Salem, Massachusetts. Gallows Hill has been believed to be haunted ever since the trials in 1692-93. Nineteen men and women were hanged from the trees at Gallows Hill. The site was long considered the meeting grounds for witches at annual sABBATs. It also was oracular: young persons who wished to know their future in marriage, and the identities of their future spouses, would go to Gallows Hill at night and listen for the answers to be revealed to them by the ghosts of the dead witches. Whenever an important event was about to happen, the neighborhood would be filled with the screechings and screamings of the haunting witches (see ghosts, HAuNTINGs AND witchcraft). Gallows Hill is now a residential area. See Salem Witches.

Gardner, Gerald B(rousseau) (1884-1964) English Witch and founder of contemporary Witchcraft as a religion. As much myth as truth surrounds Gerald B. Gardner. Some of the truth about his motivations and actions may never be known. The posthumous assessment of him is that he was a con man and an artful dissembler, yet he had great vision and creativity and was willing to try outrageous things. The religion that he helped to launch and shape has evolved far beyond what he is likely to have forseen.

Hereditary Witches and practitioners of family tradition witchcraft object to Gardner being credited as the

"founder" of the religion of Witchcraft, claiming that family traditions have existed for centuries. Nonetheless, there is no evidence that an organized religion of Witchcraft—not simply traditions of folk and ceremonial magic mixed with occultism and fragments of pagan traditions—existed prior to Gardner.

Gardner was born into a well-to-do family in Blundell-sands, near Liverpool, England, on Friday, June 13, 1884. His father was a merchant and justice of the peace, a member of a family that had made money in the timber trade. According to Gardner, the family's roots could be traced to Grissell Gairdner, who was burned as a witch in 1610 in Newburgh. Gardner's grandfather married a woman reputed to be a witch, and some of Gardner's distant relatives were purported to have psychic gifts. Gardner's ancestral family tree also included mayors of Liverpool and Alan Gardner, a naval commander and later vice admiral and peer, who distinguished himself as commander in chief of the Channel fleet and helped to deter the invasion of Napoleon in 1807.

The middle of three sons, the young Gardner was raised primarily by the family's nurse and governess, Josephine "Com" McCombie. He suffered severely from asthma. Com convinced his parents to let her take him traveling during the winters to help alleviate his condition. Com roamed about Europe, leaving Gardner to spend much time by himself reading. When Com married a man who lived in Ceylon, Gardner traveled there with her and worked on a tea plantation. Later, he moved to Borneo and then Malaysia to work.

In the Far East, he became fascinated with the local religious and magical beliefs, and was drawn to ritual daggers and knives, especially the Mayalsian kris, a dagger with a wavy blade. He later wrote a book, Kris and Other Malay Weapons, published in Singapore in 1939. It was reprinted posthumously in England in 1973.

From 1923 to 1936, Gardner worked in the Far East as a civil servant for the British government as a rubber plantation inspector, customs official and inspector of opium establishments. He made a considerable sum of money in rubber, which enabled him to dabble in a field of great interest to him, archaeology. He claimed to have found the site of the ancient city of Singapura.

In 1927 he married an Englishwoman, Donna. The two returned to England upon his retirement from government work in 1936. Gardner spent much time on various archaeological trips around Europe and Asia Minor. In Cyprus he found places he had dreamed about previously, which convinced him he had lived there in a previous life.

His second book, A Goddess Arrives, a novel set in Cyprus and concerning the worship of the Goddess as Aphrodite in the year 1450 B.C.E., was published in 1939.

In England Gardner became acquainted with the people who introduced him to the Craft. The Gardners lived in the New Forest region, where Gardner became involved with the Fellowship of Crotona, an occult group of Co-Masons, a Masonic order established by Mrs. Be-sant Scott, daughter of Theosophist Annie Besant. The group had established "The First Rosicrucian Theater in England," which put on plays with occult themes. One of the members told Gardner they had been together in a previous life and described the site in Cyprus of which Gardner had dreamed.

Within the Fellowship of Crotona was another, secret group, which drew Gardner into its confidence. The members claimed to be hereditary Witches who practiced a Craft passed down to them through the centuries, unbroken by the witch-hunts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The group met in the New Forest. Just days before World War II began in 1939, Gardner was initiated into the coven in the home of old Dorothy Clutterbuck.

Gardner was intensely interested in MAGIC and witchcraft and invested much time in extending his network of contacts in occultism. He collected material on magical procedures, especially ceremonial magic, which he put together in an unpublished manuscript entitled Ye Bok of ye Art Magical.

In 1946, he met CECIL Williamson, the founder of the Witchcraft Research Centre and Museum of WITCHCRAFT. In 1947, he was introduced to ALEISTER Crowley by Arnold Crowther. Gardner was especially interested in gleaning whatever he could from Crowley, who by then was in poor health and only months away from death. Gardner obtained magical material from Crowley. From this and other sources, he compiled his book of shadows, a collection of rituals and Craft laws. Gardner claimed to have received a fragmentary book of shadows from his New Forest coven.

Crowley made Gardner an honorary member of the Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO), a Tantric sex magic order at one time under Crowley's leadership, and granted Gardner a charter to operate an OTO lodge.

Gardner was prevented from being too public about Witchcraft because it was still against the law in England. He disguised his book of shadows in a novel, High Magic's Aid, published in 1949 under the pseudonym Scire. The novel concerns worship of "the old gods" but mentioned by name only Janicot. The Goddess had yet to make a major appearance in Gardner's Craft—although he said that his coven worshiped the Goddess by the name of Airdia or Areda (see Aradia).

The anti-witchcraft law was repealed in 1951. Gardner broke away from the New Forest coven and established his own.

He became involved in Williamson's Museum of Witchcraft in Castletown on the Isle of Man, officiating at its opening and serving for a time as its "resident Witch." In 1952, he bought the museum buildings and display cases from Williamson and operated his own museum.

In 1953 Gardner initiated DOREEN VALIENTE into his coven. Valiente substantially reworked his book of shadows, taking out most of the Crowley material because his "name stank" and giving more emphasis to the Goddess. From 1954 to 1957 Gardner and Valiente collaborated on writing ritual and nonritual material, a body of work which became the authority for what became known as the Gardnerian tradition.

Gardner's first nonfiction book on the Craft, Witchcraft Today, was published in 1954. It supports anthropologist MARGARET A. Murray's now meritless theory that modern Witchcraft is the surviving remnant of an organized Pagan religion that existed during the witch-hunts. Murray wrote the introduction for Gardner's book. The immediate success of Witchcraft Today led to new covens springing up all over England and vaulted Gardner into the public arena. He made numerous media appearances, and the press dubbed him "Britain's Chief Witch." He loved being in a media spotlight, which cast him in the curious position of initiating people into a "secret" tradition that was then spread all over the tabloids. The publicity, much of it negative, led to a split in his coven in 1957, with Valiente and others going separate ways.

In 1959 Gardner published his last book, The Meaning of Witchcraft. In 1960 he was invited to a garden party at Buckingham Palace in recognition of his distinguished civil service work in the Far East. The same year, his wife (who never joined the Craft or participated in any of its activities) died, and he began to suffer again from asthma. In 1963, shortly before he left for Lebanon for the winter, he met RAYMOND BuCKLAND, an Englishman who had moved to America and who would introduce the Gardnerian tradition to the United States. Gardner's high priestess, MONIQuE Wilson (Lady Olwen), initiated Buckland into the Craft.

On Gardner's return home from Lebanon by boat in 1964, he suffered heart failure and died at the breakfast table on board the ship on February 12. He was buried ashore in Tunis on February 13.

In his will, Gardner bequeathed the museum, his ritual tools and objects, notebooks and the copyrights of his

Gardner's house in Malew Street, Castletown, Isle of Man. House is on right. The barn, at left, held Gardner's covenstead on the upper floor and a workshop on the ground floor, where Gardner made his magical tools. Patricia C. Crowther and others were initiated in the covenstead. (PHOTO BY IAN LILLEYMAN; COURTESY PATRICIA C. CROWTHER)

Gardner's house in Malew Street, Castletown, Isle of Man. House is on right. The barn, at left, held Gardner's covenstead on the upper floor and a workshop on the ground floor, where Gardner made his magical tools. Patricia C. Crowther and others were initiated in the covenstead. (PHOTO BY IAN LILLEYMAN; COURTESY PATRICIA C. CROWTHER)

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