Further reading

Horne, Fiona. Witch: A Magickal Journey: A Hip Guide to

Modern Witchcraft. London: Thorsons, 2001.

Horned God In contemporary Paganism and Witchcraft, the consort of the Goddess and representative of the male principle of the Supreme Deity. The Horned God is the lord of the woodlands, the hunt and animals. He also is the lord of life, death and the underworld. He is the sun to the Goddess' Moon. The Horned God alternates with the Goddess in ruling over the fertility cycle of birth-death-rebirth. He is born at the winter solstice, unites with the Goddess in marriage at Beltane (May 1) and dies at the summer solstice. His death is a sacrifice to life.

The origin of the Horned God may date to Paleolithic times, as evidenced by a ritualistic cave painting discovered in the Caverne des Trois Freres at Ariege, France. One of the figures is either a stag standing upright on hind legs or a man dressed in stag costume

Satyr family (ALBRECHT DÜRER, 1505)

in a dance. The wearing of animal clothes in rituals to secure game was practiced in Europe for thousands of years.

Among the deities and beings associated with the Horned God are CERNuNNos, the Celtic god of fertility, animals and the underworld; Herne the Hunter, a specter of Britain; PAN, the Greek god of the woodlands; Janus, the Roman god of good beginnings, whose two-faced visage represents youth and age, life and death; Tammuz and Damuzi, the son-lover-consorts to IsHTAR and INANNA; Osiris, Egyptian lord of the underworld; Dionysus, Greek god of vegetation and the vine, whose cult observed rites of dismemberment and resurrection; and the GREEN MAN, the lord of vegetation and the woodlands.

The horns of the Horned God are associated with his domain of the woodlands, and with the bull and the ram,

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