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Adler, Margot. Drawing Down the Moon. Rev. ed. New York: Viking, 1986.

Berger, Helen A., Evan A. Leach, and Leigh Shaffer. Voices from the Pagan Census: A National Survey of Witches and Neo-Pagans in the United States. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003. Crowley, Vivianne. Phoenix from the Flame: Pagan Spirituality in the Western World. London: Aquarian, 1994.

-. Principles of Paganism. London: Thorsons/Harper-

Collins, 1996.

Harvey, Graham. Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Harvey, Graham, and Charlotte Hardman, eds. Paganism

Today. London: Thorsons/HarperCollins, 1996. Hopman, Ellen Evert, and Lawrence Bond. Being a Pagan: Druids, Wiccans and Witches Today. Rochester, Vt.: Destiny Books, 2002. Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1991.

Kemp, Anthony. Witchcraft and Paganism Today. London: Michael O'Mara Books, Ltd., 1993.

Pagan Way Contemporary Pagan movement that emerged in America in 1970 in response to a rapidly rising interest in paganism, WITCHCRAFT and MAGIC. Existing Witchcraft covens, with traditional intensive screening programs and "year-and-a-day" probationary periods, were unable to accommodate the large number of inquiries and applicants. Pagan Way provided an alternative with an open, nature-oriented system that emphasized celebration of nature over magic and that had no formal INITIATIoN or membership requirements.

One of the central figures in the development of Pagan Way was Joseph B. Wilson, an American witch who founded a popular journal, The Waxing Moon, in 1965. While stationed with the U.S. Air Force in England in 1969, Wilson began and coordinated correspondence among 15 to 20 groups and persons interested in establishing an esoteric form of Paganism. Among other key figures were ED Fitch, an American and high priest in the Gardnerian tradition, at the time stationed with the U.S. Air Force in North Dakota; Fred and Martha Adler, American witches in California; John Score (also known as M) of England, who wielded considerable influence on both sides of the Atlantic through his newsletter, The Wiccan; the leaders of the Regency and Plant Bran covens in Britain; Tony Kelly, British poet; and Susan Roberts, journalist and author of Witches U.S.A.

After four to five months of round-robin correspondence, the founders decided upon basic principles for the new movement and conceived ideas for rituals. Fitch and Kelly began writing introductory materials. Fitch composed group and solitary rituals based on Celtic and European folk traditions, with some Gardnerian influence. In addition, he composed material for an Outer Court, an introduction to Witchcraft. The material first appeared in The Waxing Moon, the publication of which Wilson turned over to Fitch and Thomas Giles, of Philadelphia, in 1969.

Fitch and Giles set up mailing centers in Minot, North Dakota, and Philadelphia. The Pagan material was so enthusiastically received that Fitch and Giles approved the establishment of additional, independent mailing centers.

The rituals, lore and background material were never copyrighted but were placed in the public domain in order to gain the widest possible distribution. Over the years, they have been republished several times by various occult houses as The Rituals of the Pagan Way, A Book of Pagan Rituals and perhaps under other titles as well.

In the 1970s Pagan Way groves spread across the United States, primarily in major cities but also in some small communities. Many followers were solitaries. Pagan Way appealed to two main audiences: those just getting started in Witchcraft, and those interested in attending Pagan ceremonies and structuring social and civic activities around them, much like mainstream churches. According to Fitch, the movement never was intended to address the esoteric audience of mystery seekers. Eventually, adaptations were made for those who wanted more esoteric aspects: initiation rites were added by Cole, Enderle and others, and secret, closed Outer Courts were formed which gave more emphasis to magic.

In 1971 Wilson resumed editorship of The Waxing Moon; Fitch and Giles renamed their journal The Crystal Well and published separately.

Pagan Way groves thrived during the 1970s. The founders and early organizers let the movement take its own course. No central organization was formed; the groves and mailing centers remained autonomous and loosely affiliated. By 1980 what little there was of the organization had fallen apart, and groves dwindled in size and number. An ever-changing scene of new groups emerged out of Pagan Way. The Pagan Way rituals, however, endured, and continue to be used and adapted by numerous succeeding Pagan groups.

In the United Kingdom, the movement evolved separately from the American movement with the founding in 1971 of the Pagan Front, which later changed its name to the Pagan Federation.

Pan Greek pastoral deity of flocks and herds, who was half man and half goat, with the legs, horns and beard of a goat. He was the offspring of either HERMES and Penel ope, or Hermes and Dryope, daughter of King Dropys, whose flocks he tended. His cult was centered in Arcadia, where he haunted the woodlands, hills and mountains, sleeping at noon and then dancing through the woods as he played the panpipes, which he invented. As a lusty leader of satyrs, he chased the nymphs; he later was incorporated into the retinue of Dionysus. His symbol was the phallus, and he was invoked for the fertility of flocks, or an abundant hunt. Every region in Greece had its own Pan, who was known by various names, and Pan eventually came to symbolize the universal god. He is recognized in PAGANISM and contemporary Witchcraft and is an aspect of the Horned God.

Parsons, Hugh (mid-17th century) One of the few trials in the early American colonies of a man accused of witchcraft was that of Hugh Parsons, which took place in 1651 in Springfield, Connecticut. A successful sawyer and bricklayer, Parsons enjoyed a reputation as an "honest, sensible laboring" man, according to the records of his trial. He was one of the first settlers in the Springfield area.

Parsons married a young woman, Mary Lewis, on October 27, 1645. Mary had a sharp tongue and did not get along with some of her neighbors. Furthermore, she had swings in mood and temper. At some point in the marriage, Mary accused Goodwife Marshfield of bewitching the children of Mr. Moxon, the settlement's minister. Goody Marshfield sued for libel and won. Parsons made no secret of his opinion that the verdict was due to false testimony, but he paid the fine of 24 bushels of corn plus 20 shillings.

Sometime later, Parsons had another run-in involving Moxon. The dispute concerned an alleged agreement to replace the bricks in Moxon's chimney. Parsons conceded to Moxon's terms and did the job, muttering that now Parsons "would be even with" Moxon, and "this will be the end of it."

Such incidents stirred up resentment against Parsons and his wife among the townspeople. Furthermore, the area had been plagued since 1641 by bad fortune and mischief attributed to witches. Evidently, the townspeople finally decided to put a stop to their troubles by prosecuting a witch, and Parsons provided them with the ideal victim.

On October 4, 1649, the Parsonses had their first child, Samuel, who died a year later. On October 26, 1650, a second son, Joshua, was born. Shortly after the baby's birth, Mary's mental and physical health began to deteriorate. She neglected her baby, which languished and died on March 11, 1651. Mary was declared permanently insane, having been rendered so by witchcraft. Her condition and the deaths of her two infants were taken as legal evidence that both she and Parsons were witches. The records state, "the clamor against the Father increased and he was denounced as a Witch on all Sides."

Parsons was brought to trial in Springfield first. There was no shortage of "evidence" against him, including the testimony of the vengeful Moxon and Goody Marshfield. A jury convicted him of bewitching his second child to death.

Mary was sent to jail in Boston on May 1. She went to trial on May 7 facing two charges: having familiarity with the DEVIL as a witch, and "willfully and most wickedly murdering her owne Child." She was found not guilty on the first charge, due to insufficient evidence. She confessed she was guilty of the second charge and was condemned to death.

On May 27 Mary confessed that she was a witch. The Springfield court reluctantly reversed the verdict against Parsons. He was not, however, a free man. More charges were brought against him of having familiarity with the Devil to hurt "diverse Persons." The jury was convinced that even though Parsons did not bewitch his second child to death, he did practice witchcraft on his neighbors. The incriminating "evidence" was little more than his habits of cutting boiled puddings longitudinally, filing his saws at night and other "amusements." After a long and tedious trial in Springfield, Parsons was sent to jail in Boston. There is no record of his final fate, but he never returned to Springfield.

Paxson, Diana L. (1943- ) Pagan, Wiccan and author of fantasy fiction and Pagan nonfiction. Diana L. Paxson has been a leader in Pagan and Wiccan activities.

Paxson was born in 1943 and grew up in California. In 1964, she graduated from Mills College, and in 1966 she earned a master's degree in comparative literature from the University of California.

Paxson was a founder of the Society of Creative Anachronism in 1966 and also was a first officer of the COVENANT OF THE GODDESS.

Paxson's sister-in-law was MARION ZIMMER BRADLEY, whose ceremonial lodge gave Paxson her first Pagan INITIATION. In 1978, Paxson joined Bradley as a founder of the Darkmoon Circle, from which came the Fellowship of the Spiral Path. In 1982, Paxson was consecrated as priestess of the Fellowship.

Paxson has been especially active in the Heathen tradition of Asatru; she is the founder and gydhja (female equivalent of a godhi, the Asatru spiritual leader) of the Hrafnar tradition in Berkeley, California, and is an elder and board director of the Troth (formerly the Ring of Troth), an international Heathen organization. She edits Troth's journal, Idunna. Her nonfiction Pagan books center on the Heathen tradition, Taking Up the Runes and Essential Asatru.

Paxson has published more than 70 fantasy short stories and numerous novels, including nine historical fantasies. Her best-known works are the Chronicles of Westria novels and books in the Mists of Avalon series, which she took over from Bradley. She served as the western re gional director of the Science Fiction & Fantasy Writers of America. With z BuDAPEST, a longtime friend and collaborator, she coauthored Celestial Wisdom for Every Year of Your Life (2003), an astrological guide.

In addition, Paxson plays the folk harp and composes music and designs and sews period costumes. She lives in her literary household, Greyhaven, in Berkeley.

PEBBLE The Public Bodies Liaison Committee for British Paganism. PEBBLE is a network organization to promote Pagan interests, community services and civil rights, especially to British government agencies.

PEBBLE was formed in 1988 originally to lobby for access rights to Stonehenge. It has since expanded its activities. Partners include more than 20 orders, groups and individuals, among them the PAGAN FEDERATION, the Pagan Network, the Pagan Association, Heathens for Progress, the Druid Network, Derbyshire Pagans and the Council of British Druid Orders.

Some of the projects undertaken by PEBBLE are to get Paganism listed as a religious selection in the 2011 British census and to get Pagan terminology in new editions of the Oxford Dictionary.

pellar In English folk MAGIC and WITCHCRAFT, a healer, diviner and breaker of SPELLS. The term is probably a corruption of expel, as in the repelling or expelling of spells. A pellar would be sought out if a person thought he or she had been bewitched or cursed.

Sometimes the mere mention of "going to the pellar" was sufficient for stolen goods to be returned, or restitution made for grievances. It also was customary to make annual visits to a pellar just to have one's "protection" renewed against bad luck and any acts of witchcraft that might be directed one's way. This trip customarily was done in the spring, as it was believed that the increasing of the Sun's rays magnified the power of the pellar. A trip to see a famous pellar was often a considerable undertaking, with long waits upon arrival.

Despite their importance in rural society, few pellars made their living solely upon their magical craft. Most were poor, and held other jobs while they performed their magical services on the side.

Like cunning MEN/WOMEN, white witches, wizards, conjurers and so on, pellars were believed to acquire their gifts through heredity or supernatural means. In Cornwall, pellars were said to be descended from Matthew Lutey of Cury, whose spell-breaking powers reputedly were bestowed upon him by a mermaid whom he rescued and returned to sea.

Pellars made CHARMS for their clients from herbs, powders, ointments, potions, stones, and perhaps teeth, bones and dirt taken from graves. These were placed in little bags to be worn about the neck as an AMuLET. Sometimes powders and earth from graves was to be thrown over children, cattle or other livestock as a way

Grimoire Abracadabra
A pellar (OLD WOODCUT)

of protecting them against bewitchment and the EVIL EYE (see also BLASTING).

Or, the clients might be given bits of paper or parchment inscribed with mysterious words or astrological signs copied from magical texts (see GRIMOIRES). ABRACADABRA was commonly used, as was the term Sator Arepo Tenet Opera Rotas or Nalgah or Tetragrammaton. Written charms were folded and worn around the neck in little bags as well.

Whatever the remedy, a great deal of secrecy surrounded it, and clients were admonished not to talk about any of the proceedings between the pellar and client.

Pellars, as well as their folk magic counterparts, were active well into the 19th century. A few still can be found in rural locations in modern times.

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