Further reading

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Buckland, Raymond. Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft.

St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1986. Cahill, Robert Ellis. Strange Superstitions. Danvers, Mass.: Old

Saltbox Publishing, 1990.

bruja/brujo The feminine and masculine names, respectively, for the witches of Mexico, Mesoamerica and Hispanic communities in the United States. Of the two, the bruja, the woman, is more prevalent and considered the more powerful. The bruja holds a visible, important function: she is sought for remedies for physical illness, and spells and CHARMS to remedy emotional, romantic and social problems. Brujas work in many open-air markets in Mexico, selling herbs, charms and other objects from which customized amulets and charms may be made. Many of their remedies for physical ailments are based on folk cures handed down through the centuries.

See also curandero/curandera; DEVIL FISH; GARLIC.

Buckland, Raymond (1934- ) English Witch called "the Father of American Witchcraft," who introduced Witchcraft to America. After moving to the United States in 1962, Raymond Buckland became a leading authority on witchcraft and wiCCA and enjoys a career as a prolific author, public speaker, media consultant and media personality. He has written more than 50 books translated into 17 languages.

Buckland was born in London on August 31, 1934, to Stanley Thomas Buckland and Eileen Lizzie Wells. His father was a Romani (Gypsy) who worked in the British Ministry of Health as Higher Executive Officer. A poshrat, or half Gypsy, Buckland was raised in the Church of England. Around age 12, a Spiritualist uncle interested him in Spiritualism and the occult, and the interest expanded over time to include witchcraft, MAGIC and the occult.

Buckland was educated at King's College School in London and served in the Royal Air Force from 1957 to 1959. He earned a doctorate in anthropology from Brant-ridge Forest College in Sussex, England. He performed in theaters, taught himself to play the trombone and led his own Dixieland band.

He married his first wife, Rosemary Moss, in 1955. The couple had two sons. They immigrated to the United States in 1962 and settled in Brentwood, Long Island. Buckland went to work for British Airways (then BOAC), first in reservations service and then as a sales manual editor.

His decision to embrace Witchcraft as his religion was influenced by two books, The Witch-cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Murray, and Witchcraft Today, by Gerald B. Gardner. They helped him realize that Witchcraft was the religion for which he had been searching. Buckland wrote to Gardner, who was living on the Isle of Man, and struck up a mail and telephone relationship. He became Gardner's spokesperson in the United States;

whenever Gardner received a query from an American, he forwarded the letter to Buckland.

Buckland went to England in 1963, where he met Gardner. Buckland was initiated into the Craft by one of Gardner's high priestesses, Monique wilson, or Lady Ol-wen. The initiation took place in Perth, Scotland, where Wilson lived. Rosemary was initiated at a later time. It was the first and last time Buckland would ever see Gardner, who died in February 1964.

Interest in witchcraft caught on quickly in America, but the Bucklands built their own coven slowly and cautiously. They were later criticized for their caution; people who did not want to wait to be witches by traditional initiation simply started their own covens. Initially, Buckland kept his real name and address out of the media. The information eventually was published in the New York Sunday News, which focused more attention on him as a spokesperson for the Craft.

Buckland was inspired by Gardner's Museum of Witchcraft and Magic on the Isle of Man and began collecting pieces for his own museum, the first Museum of Witchcraft and Magic in the United States. The collection

Raymond Buckland
Raymond Buckland (COURTESY RAYMOND BUCKLAND)

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