Further reading

Sharpe, C. K. A History of Witchcraft in Scotland. Glasgow:

Thomas D. Morison, 1884.

Fortune, Dion (1891-1946) The magical name of Violet Mary Firth, British occultist and author whose books continue to have an impact on modern WITCHCRAFT and Paganism. Considered one of the leading occultists of her time, Dion Fortune was an adept in ceremonial MAGIC and was perhaps one of the first occult writers to approach magic and hermetic concepts from the psychology of Jung and Freud (see HERMETICA). Some contemporary Witches and Pagans consider her fiction more important than her nonfiction, for her novels contain Pagan themes and are a rich source for rituals.

Fortune was born into a family of Christian Scientists and displayed mediumistic abilities in her teen years. In her early twenties, she worked as a law analyst at the Medico-Psychological Clinic in London. Her interest in exploring the human psyche resulted from an unpleasant episode in 1911, when, at age 29, she went to work in a school for a principal who took a great personal dislike to her. When Fortune went to see the woman to announce she was leaving her job, she was subjected to invective that she had no self-confidence and was incompetent. Fortune said later that the principal also conveyed this by psychic attack, using yogic techniques and hypnotism that left Fortune a "mental and physical wreck" for three years.

As a result, she studied psychology, delving into the works of both Freud and Jung. She preferred the ideas of Jung but eventually concluded that neither Freud nor Jung adequately addressed the subtleties and complexities of the mind. The answers, Fortune felt, lay in occultism.

In 1919 Fortune joined the Alpha and Omega Lodge of the Stella Matutina, an outer order of the HERMETIC Order of the Golden Dawn, and studied under J. W. Brodie-Innes. She experienced clashes with the wife of S. L. MacGregor-Mathers, one of the founders of the Golden Dawn, which she again felt were forms of psychic attack. She left Stella Matutina in 1924 and founded her own order, the Community (later Fraternity) of the Inner Light. The order initially was part of the Golden Dawn but later separated from it.

Fortune worked as a psychiatrist, which brought her into contact with other cases of psychic attack. She was a prolific writer, pouring her occult knowledge into both novels and nonfiction. Her pen name was derived from the magical motto she adopted upon joining the Stella Matutina, "Deo Non Fortuna," ("by God, not chance"), which

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