Further reading

Hell Really Exists

Hell Really Exists

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Cavendish, Richard. The Black Arts. New York: Putnam, 1967. Lea, Henry Charles. Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft.

Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1939. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Summers, Montague, ed. The Malleus Maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger. New York: Dover Publications, 1971. First published, 1928.

deosil (also deiseal) Clockwise circular movement which in MAGIC and witchcraft is used in casting positive sPELLs and in casting the MAGIC CIRCLE. The clockwise rotation is associated with the movement of the sun across the heavens and with blessings and good fortune. Deiseal is the Irish term for "a turning to the right," or the "holy round." Deosil dances and circuits are done not only around magic circles but around festival fires (see Wheel of the Year), holy objects such as sacred stones, crops, fields, homes and buildings. The opposite of deosil is widdershins.

Devil Christianity's Prince of Supreme Evil. The Devil, or Satan, is not a god of Wiccans and Pagans. The association of witches with the Devil grew in the Middle Ages and Reformation, when belief in a personal Satan as the agent of all evil was particularly strong. Accusations of Devil-worship were not limited to witches. Christians charged the same of Jews, Muslims, pagans, Cathars, Albigenses, Waldenses, "Red Indians" and other heretics, and Protestants and Catholics accused each other of it as well. Even Martin Luther was said by Catholics to have given himself over to the Devil.

Devil comes from the Greek diabolos ("slanderer" or "accuser"), translated from the Hebrew satan. The concept of the Devil as archfiend of evil developed slowly over many centuries, becoming a composite of Lucifer, the fallen angel whose pride and ego got him expelled from heaven; Satan, the tempter of man; and various pagan deities such as PAN and CERNuNNos.

Satan plays a minor role in the Old Testament as the opponent of man, dispatched by God to test man's faith. He is not evil and is an angel in the kingdom of heaven. In Job, Satan follows God's instructions to destroy Job's family and possessions and cover him with running sores in an effort to tempt him into cursing God. In the New Testament, Satan becomes more personal and is the great antagonist of God as well as man. The book of Revelation forecasts that Christ, in his second coming, will bind the Devil for 1,000 years, at which time the Devil will reappear one final time, as the Antichrist, before being destroyed. The dualism of Christianity became firmly established, with a god of light and goodness and a god of evil and darkness.

By the ninth century, the Devil held a central position in Christianity. Satan, the Devil, was believed in as a real,

The Devil with his witches and demons (OLD WOODCUT)

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The Devil with his witches and demons (OLD WOODCUT)

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