Further reading

Thrice Greatest Hermes Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis. York Beach, Me. Samuel Weiser, 1992. Hermetica Forty-two sacred books of mystical wisdom attributed to the mythical HERMES TRISMEGISTUS, or thrice great Hermes, the combined Egyptian and Greek deities of Thoth and HERMES, respectively. The books, which date from somewhere between the third century B.C.E. and first century C.E., had an enormous impact on the development of Western occultism and MAGIC. Many of the...

Burning times

Under the Moon (1991) The Goddess in the Office A Personal Energy Guide for the Spiritual Warrior at Work (1993) The Goddess in the Bedroom A Passionate Woman's Guide to Celebrating Sexuality Every Night of the Week (1995) The Grandmother of Time A Woman's Book of Celebrations, Spells, and Sacred Objects for Every Month of the Year (1989) Celestial Wisdom for Every Year of Your Life Discover the Hidden Meaning of Your Life (2003) and Summoning the Fates A Guide to Destiny and Transformation...

Candle With Pin Stuck In It Witchcraft

Witchcraft in the Southwest Spanish and Indian Supernaturalism on the Rio Grande. Lincoln University of Nebraska Press, 1974. poppet A magical doll made for spell-casting and ritual magic. In spell-casting, the doll substitutes for the person who is the object of the spell. The doll is carefully made in a state of concentration that focuses on the purpose of the spell. Ideally, the doll has things belonging to the subject, such as bits of clothing and snippets of HAIR AND NAIL...

Goddess

To be patroness of the hunt to mammoth hunters in the Pyrenees and was also protectress of the hearth and lady of the wild things. Female figurines also have been found from the proto-Neolithic period of 7000-9000 B.C.E. In the Middle Neolithic period, ca. 6000-5000 B.C.E., figures of a mother holding a child appear. In the High Neolithic period, ca. 4500-3500 B.C.E., decorated female figurines presumably were objects of worship. In Africa, cave images of the Horned Goddess (later Isis) date to...

Sessions

Ghosts, hauntings and witchcraft Hauntings by ghosts and poltergeists are sometimes blamed on witches and witchcraft, particularly in areas where fear of MAGIC runs high. In Brazil, for example, where fear of magic is strong among the working class, many cases of poltergeist activity are attributed to witches' curses laid on families. The notion that witches were responsible for ghosts and hauntings took root on the Continent and in the British Isles after the Protestant Reformation of the 16th...

Greedigut Witchcraft

Irish Witchcraft and Demonology. Dublin Hodges, Figgis & Co., 1913. familiars In folklore, low-ranking demons in constant attention to witches for the purpose of carrying out spELLs and bewitchments. Familiars usually assumed animal forms cats, TOADs, OWLs, mice and dogs were the most common though virtually any animal or insect could be suspected. In witchcraft trials, if so much as a fly buzzed in the window while a witch was being questioned or tried, it was said to...

Hecate

One common remedy for fairy-caused illness was the recitation of Christian pRAYERs followed by a measurement of the patient's girdle to see if the fairy had departed the body (see GIRDLE measuring). Other healers diagnosed the patient's urine. Healers dispensed herbal remedies in the form of powders, potions and unguents. They prescribed CHARMs, little prayers comprised of both pagan and Christian elements. They also cast spells. Some folk-magic remedies required procedures on the part of the...

Exorcism

Children and animals are especially vulnerable. In many villages, it is considered unwise to show children too much in public or to call attention to their beauty. Likewise, it is not advisable to display possessions or brag about successes. In 19th-century Ireland, animals who were under the influence of the evil eye were said to have been blinked. In order to save such animals, local wise women were sought for ritual cures. The primary defense against the evil eye is an amulet, which may be...

Fox Selena

Her books are considered classics and continue to enjoy wide readership. For a time she lived in Glastonbury and became deeply interested in the Arthurian legends and magical-mystical lore centered there. She wrote about Glastonbury in Fortune used her experiences with psychic attack to conclude that hostile psychic energy can emanate both deliberately and unwittingly from certain people and that one can mentally fend off such energy. Her book Psychic...

The Spanish Inquisition

The Inquisition took its own course in Spain and Portugal, where it was turned primarily against Jews and Muslims, religious sects and even Freemasons. Accusations of witchcraft and sorcery were used against many of the accused. The driving force behind the Spanish Inquisition was political unification of the three dominant kingdoms of Spain, Castile, Aragon and Granada, pursued by King Ferdinand, who ascended the throne of Aragon in 1479, and his wife, Queen Isabella, who ascended the throne...

Puck Of Pooks Hill Witchcraft

Witchcraft at Salem. New York New American Library, 1969. Upham, Charles. History of Witchcraft and Salem Village. Boston Wiggin and Lunt, 1867. Puck The personal name of a nature spirit in the folklore of Britain, Ireland and Wales known for his mischievous and trickster ways. In medieval times, under the influence of Christianity, Puck was associated with the DEVIL, as were all pagan deities and spirits. In folklore, puck is a term for a type of spirit. Shakespeare...

Chanting

Cernunnos was ruler of the underworld or oth-erworld, the opener of the gates between life and death. He also was worshiped by the Romans and Gauls, who sometimes portrayed him as triple-headed. The name Cernunnos means simply the horned. The famous Gundestrup cauldron, a large, gilt silver cauldron dated ca. 100 B.C.E. and recovered from a bog near Gundestrup, Denmark, depicts a stag-horned Cer-nunnos in several scenes as an antlered man attended by animals, including a boar, and...

Guazzo Francesco Maria

Area and found Gruber's hair and several of his bones, all widely scattered the skull, three ribs, two long bones and two small bones. It was assumed that Gruber had been killed by Indians, giving the case a bizarre twist. In the end, it seemed that his sorcery had failed him. Simmons, Marc. Witchcraft in the Southwest Spanish and Indian Supernaturalism on the Rio Grande. Lincoln. University of Nebraska Press, 1974. Guazzo, Francesco-Maria (17th century) Italian friar who became well known as a...

Sex between Humans and Demons

Demons have sexual appetites for intercourse with humans. In The Zohar (Book of Splendor), the principal work of the Kabbalah, any pollution of semen results in the birth of demons, including intercourse with the night-terror demons such as LILITH. Demons in the shape of human males (incubi) prey on women, while demons in female shapes (succubi) prey on men. In Christianity, the possibility of intercourse with demons was denied prior to the 12th century. But as the Inquisition gained force,...

Aztecs Cut Of Cocks

The World of the Witches. 1961. Reprint, Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1975. Barstow, Anne Llewellyn. Witchcraze A New History of the European Witch Hunts. San Francisco Pandora Harper Collins, 1994. Ginzburg, Carlo. Ecstasies Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath. New York Pantheon Books, 1991. Lea, Henry Charles. Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft. Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania, 1939. Marwick, Max, ed. Witchcraft and Sorcery. New York Viking Penguin,...

William Bottrell Folklorist

The Inquisition used blasting to its own ends, as one of many justifications for the crushing of pagans, heretics and political enemies of the Church. In Paganism and Wicca, blasting and all other acts of harmful magic are considered unethical, a violation of the law, An' it harm none, do what ye will. According to tenets of the Craft, Witches must use their powers for good, to help others and work in harmony with nature (see Wiccan Rede). In many tribal cultures, however, such...

Evil eye

The esbat may take place indoors or outdoors. A coven may have a regular meeting place or rotate it among the homes of coveners. The coveners may wear loose clothing such as robes, or they may be skyclad (nude). Animals belonging to coveners usually are allowed to be present at an esbat and to come and go as long as they do not disturb the energy flow of the rituals and magic work. Animals are not used as sacrifices. At the end of the esbat, coveners share food and drink (see cakes-and-wine)....

Bloodstone

The blood of a black CAT is said to cure pneumonia. Menstrual blood. Menstrual blood is particularly potent and is sacred to the GODDEss. Menstrual flow is linked to the phases of the MOON. The blood of the Goddess, also called wine, milk, mead and wise blood, appears universally in mythologies it is drunk for wisdom, fertility, regeneration and immortality. The menstrual blood of the Goddess is valued as a healing charm. The blood of Iris, symbolized in an ambrosia drink,...

Fairies

Fairies, he claimed, lived in great heaps of earth in Dorsetshire and could be consulted for one hour, at either noon or midnight. Walsh also defined three kinds of fairies green, white and black, and said the black were the worst. Bessy Dunlop, a wise woman healer of Ayrshire, was accused of witchcraft and sorcery on November 8, 1576, She suddenly became a successful herbalist and healer and gained second sight, which helped her predict the recovery or death of patients and the location of...

Firth Violet Mary See Dion Fortune

Fitch, Ed American Wiccan high priest and key founder of the pagan way. Born in Roxboro, North Carolina, to a family with Russian roots, Ed Fitch grew up in various locations around the country because of the moves required of his father, who worked in the construction trade. At age nine, he and his father sighted a UFO over their ranch in northern California. Fitch remembers that a circular object about 50 feet in diameter, with an aura of orange flames, rose up from a nearby mountain and...

Witchcraft Ordeals In The American Colonies

The World of the Witches. 1961. Reprint, Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1975. Gardner, Gerald B. Witchcraft Today. London Rider & Co., 1954, 1956. Remy, Nicolas. Demonolatry. Secaucus, N.J. University Books, 1974. Scot, Reginald. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. 1886. Reprint, Yorkshire, England E.P. Publishing, Ltd., 1973. Old Dorothy Clutterbuck See Clutterbuck, Old DOROTHY. ordeal by touch A means of identifying a witch. Ordeal by touch was used in the interrogation...

Reading Cigars For Witchcraft

New York NAL Signet Library, 1968. Summers, Montague. The History of Witchcraft and Demonol-ogy. London Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1926. Macumba The Brazilian form of Vodun and santer a, or the worship of the ancient African gods through spirit possession and magic. There is no Macumba religion the word is an umbrella term for the two principal forms of African spirit worship in Brazil Candombl and Umbanda. Macumba sometimes refers to black magic,...

Brass

Zines and then original paperback novels, most of them science fiction. Her first novel was Seven from the Stars, published in 1955. In 1959, Bradley left her husband and went to Abilene, where she finished college at Hardin Simmons University, majoring in education, psychology and Spanish and earning a teaching certificate. She financed her tuition by writing confession and romance novels and was selling so well by the time she finished that she never had to use the teaching certificate. In...

Hex signs

The German immigrants imported their beliefs in witchcraft, witches (hexerei), DEMONs and magical healing, called braucherei in Germany and then powwowing in America. Many of the settlers had come from the Harz Mountains area, where witchcraft beliefs were especially strong. The Harz Mountains were known as the abodes of witches, and the tallest peak, the Brocken, was the site of regular sABBATs and witches' revelries, most notably WALpurgisnacht. In the Lehigh Valley, the Hexenkopf took over...

Untying A Knot Spell

Magnus Sorcerer

Masonic Orders of Fraternity. Los Angeles Philosophical Research Society, 1950. Russell, Jeffrey B. A History of Witchcraft. London Thames and Hudson, 1980. Tuchman, Barbara. A Distant Mirror The Calamitous 14th Century. New York Ballantine Books, 1978. knots The tying and untying of knots is used to bind and release energy in many folk magic sPELLs and formulas. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tied knots in cords for love spells. The knot of Isis, a red jasper AMuLET wound...

Demos Angered By Annointing

Sydney Collins Australia, Nurse, Rebecca (1621-1692) Accused witch executed in the SALEM WITCHES hysteria in Massachusetts in 1692-93. Rebecca Nurse and her husband Francis were two of the most prominent and well-respected citizens of Salem. They had established a prosperous farm compound that was almost self sufficient, supporting a large extended family of several generations. Their prosperity was envied, and they angered some of the residents by their...

The Coven in Wicca

Many Wiccans belong to covens, although it is estimated that many more practice alone as solitaries (see solitary). The number of covens is unknown, for most exist quietly, some even secretly. Most Wiccans do not proselytize or seek converts prospective joiners must seek out a coven and ask for admission. Novices are admitted at the coven's discretion not everyone who wants to join a coven is admitted. Applicants are screened and trained in a training circle,...

Library of Congress Catalogingin Publication Data

The encyclopedia of witches, witchcraft and wicca rosemary Ellen Guiley. 3rd ed. rev. ed. The encyclopedia of witches and witchcraft . 1999. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13 978-0-8160-7103-6 (hardcover alk. paper) ISBN-10 0-8160-7103-9 (hardcover alk. paper) 1. Witchcraft Encyclopedias. 2. Witches Encyclopedias. I. Guiley, rosemary. Encyclopedia of witches and witchcraft. II. Title. BF1566.G85 2008 133.4'303 dc22 2008008917 Facts On File books are available at special...

Leo Louis Martello

Pagan Male Magazine

Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy. 1931. Reprint, New York Dover Publications, 1971. Martello, Dr. Leo Louis (1931-2000) American witch, hypnotist, graphologist and activist for civil and gay rights. Leo Louis Martello became a prominent figure in the new Witchcraft of the 1960s until his retirement in the 1990s. Martello was a colorful figure, known for his humor. He kept a boa constrictor beneath his bed. Martello, who claimed a Sicilian witch heritage, was born in...

Witchcraft and Sorcery

In the extension of its power as a religious, social and political force, the church had long opposed pagan practices and sORCERY, especially sacrifices to DEMONs. From the 8th century to about the 12th century, the church sought to wipe out paganism. By the 13th century, there was more tolerance, and the church itself even acquired an aura of magical power. Practices of alchemy, MAGIC, sorcery, divination and necromancy were widespread, even in the church. John XXII was well aware of this...

Farrar Janet and Stewart

English witches whose progressive witchcraft work has had a major influence on the Craft. Janet and Stewart Farrar were initiated by the flamboyant Alex Sanders but were able to transcend the showmanship that surrounded Sanders and his COVEN, and went on to form their own covens in England and Ireland. Their Craft is sometimes called reformed Alexandrian and post-Alexandrian, but the Farrars avoided applying a sectarian label to their work. They preferred to call themselves simply Wiccans...

See African witchcraft

Fian, John ( -1591) A young schoolmaster in Saltpans, Scotland, in the late 16th century, Dr. John Fian was the central figure in Scotland's most famous witch trials, which involved James VI (JAMEs I) himself. Fian, also known as John Cunningham, was accused of leading a COVEN of witches in North Berwick who, among other charges attempted to assassinate the king. Fian was brutally tortured until he confessed and was burned at the stake in 1591. The downfall of Fian was brought about by a young...

Dumbarton Scotland And Witchcraft

Leach, Maria, ed., and Jerome Fried, assoc. ed. Funk & Wag-nall's Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend. New York Harper & Row, 1972. Fortress of Dumbarton Legendary fortress at Dumbarton, Scotland, near Glasgow on the Clyde River, created by a band of angry WITCHEs in pursuit of St. Patrick. Around the year 388, the DEVIL became so offended at the piety of St. Patrick that he incited the whole body of witches in Scotland against the saint. In an army, the witches attacked...

Magic in Contemporary Witchcraft

Contemporary Witchcraft magic is a blend of theurgy and goetia. It contains elements of folk magic, ceremonial magic and sex magic. (Some Witches also have incorporated non-Western magical elements into their practices.) The Witch works within a magic circle and uses four primary magical tools, which correspond to the ELEMENTS the athame (or sword) fire the pentacle earth the chalice water and the wand air. In addition, the Witch uses a censer for the burning of incense and, in most practices,...

The Encyclopedia of Witches Witchcraft and Wicca

And novels of baby-eating hags and Satan worshipers gathered in candlelit circles intoning ominous chants. Witchcraft as a religion was born in Britain after World War II and came out of the closet when the anti-witchcraft laws there were repealed in 1953. It is argued that Gerald B. Gardner, the man who more or less invented the religion, should have chosen another term besides witchcraft for the mix of pagan, ceremonial magic and occult material he assembled. Perhaps witchcraft sounded...

Fetish

Pagans and the New Age (1999), and The Complete Dictionary of European Gods and Goddesses (2001). Janet and Bone coauthored Progressive Witchcraft Spirtuality, Training and the Mysteries in Modern Wicca (2004). Stewart Farrar's other fiction works include two additional detective novels Zero in the Gate (1960) and Death in the Wrong Bed (1963) a romance novel, Delphine, Be a Darling (1963) and seven occult novels The Twelve Maidens (1974) The Serpent of Lilith (1976) The Dance of Blood (1977)...

See cone of power Drawing Down the Moon elements Witches TooLS

Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft. St. Paul Llewellyn Publications, 1986. Crowley, Vivianne. Wicca The Old Religion in the New Millennium. Revised ed. London Thorsons Harper Collins, 1996. Green, Marian. A Witch Alone Thirteen Moons to Master Natural Magic. London Torsons Harper Collins, 1991. Starhawk. The Spiral Dance. Rev. ed. San Francisco Harper- SanFrancisco, 1989. Valiente, Doreen. An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present. 1973. Reprint, Custer, Wash. Phoenix...

Hand of glory

Leach, Maria, ed., and Jerome Fried, assoc. ed. Funk amp Wag-nall's Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend. New York Harper amp Row, 1972. hag stone In folk magic, a stone with a hole in it hung in homes and stables to keep away HAGs or witches, at night. Hung on the bedpost, a hag stone is believed to prevent a hag from riding one's chest and causing a NIGHTMARE. In the stables, it prevents a hag from taking the horses and riding them all night to the point of exhaustion. See...

Awen And Witchcraft

Determine a definite origin, purpose or interrelationship among the stones. According to various theories, the entire site may have comprised a single religious, magical or psychic center, or one specific set of stones may have served as sites for fertility, religious or burial rites or for astronomical purposes. The most widely accepted theory holds that Avebury was built by prehistoric Beaker folk, so named for their beaker pottery, over a period of five centuries. Beaker pottery has been...

Lady Olwen See Wilson Monique

Lady Sheba d. 2002 Self-described Witch Queen who rose to prominence in American Witchcraft in the late 1960s and 1970s. She set a precedent in 1971 by publishing her BOOK OF SHADOWS. Lady Sheba was born Jessie Bell in the mountains of Kentucky. She said her family had practiced witchcraft for seven generations, and she had inherited her psychic gifts. When she was about six years old, her grandmother introduced her to witchcraft, beginning with stories of Irish leprechauns and little people...

The Four Quarters

Each cardinal point of the magic circle is associated with a guardian spirit, an element, ritual tool, colors and attributes correspondences vary among traditions. North. To ancient pagans, the north was the source of great power. The heavens spun around the North Star, and the ancients aligned their temples and pyramids to the star. North, the cardinal point never touched by the Sun, was associated with darkness, mystery and the unknown. Perhaps because of the pagan reverence for the north, it...

Wicca Alice Bennet

Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. Ithaca and London Cornell University Press, 1972. Thomas, Keith. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York St. Osyth Witches A witch hunt that swept through a remote coastal area of Essex, England, in 1582 brought indictments against 14 women. Despite lurid and flimsy testimony of the kind that quickly led to convictions and executions elsewhere, all but two of the women went free. The hysteria took place in St. Osyth, not far from...

Devils pact

Witchcraft Magazine

Exactly at dawn, use a new knife to cut a fork-shaped wand from the twig of a wild nut tree that has never borne fruit. Take the wand, a magic bloodstone and consecrated candles to the site of the ritual, preferably a ruined castle or deserted house, where one will be undisturbed and receive whatever treasures the demon produces. With the bloodstone, draw a triangle on the ground or floor, and place the candles on the side of it. Stand in middle of the triangle, hold the wand and recite the...

Esbat

Salamander, an elemental of fire MICHAEL MAIER, scrutinium chymicum, 1687 Salamander, an elemental of fire MICHAEL MAIER, scrutinium chymicum, 1687 gems, minerals and metals planets and constellations the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse various species of the animal and plant kingdoms human personality traits and geometrical shapes. Roger Flud 1574-1637 , alchemist and astrologer, related the elements to harmonics, while another Renaissance alchemist, Sisismund Bactrom, believed that if all the...

Witches Roasting Babies

Ancient Mysteries of Britain. Manchester, N.H. Salem House Publishers, 1986. sabbat In earlier times, a diabolical gathering of witches. In modern times, a seasonal celebration observed by Wic-cans and Pagans. The belief that witches convened in sabbats, assemblies characterized by obscene behavior, dominated the witch hunts from the 14th and 15th centuries. The origins of the sabbat are a blend of seasonal pagan rites still in exis- Witches roasting babies in...

Anderson Victor

Although numerous attempts have been made to translate the Sator square into something that makes sense, it remains nonsensical. It was inscribed on walls and vessels as early as ancient Rome and was considered an amulet against SORCERY, poisonous air, colic and pestilence, and for protecting cow's milk from witchcraft. Holy books such as the Koran, Torah and Bible are considered to have protective powers. Bits of parchment with scripture quotes, carried in leather pouches or silver boxes, are...

Practices of the Inquisition

In the early stages of the Inquisition, there were few official guidelines concerning the arrest, questioning and punishment of heretics. In the 1240s, manuals and handbooks for inquisitors began to circulate, which continued into the 17th century. The most influential early handbook was Practica officii inquisitionis heretice pravitatis, authored in 1323-24 by the famous inquisitor, Bernard Gui. Another famous handbook was the Malleus Maleficarum, written in 1488 by two Dominicans,...

John Stearne Lawshall

Witches Manningtree

Entertaining Satan Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England. New York Oxford University Press, 2004. Upham, Charles. History of Witchcraft and Salem Village. Boston Wiggin and Lunt, 1867. Hohman, John George d. ca. 1845 The most famous braucher in the powwowing tradition of folk MAGIC, spells, hexes and healing. John George Hohman also spelled Homan was a German immigrant to America and the author of the widely circulated magical text The Long Lost Friend. Little is...

Circle Sanctuary

Circle Witchcraft

Odysseus' men were turned into swine, but Odysseus escaped with the help of a magical herb, moly, given to him by HERMEs. He forced Circe to restore his men to their human form. Nevertheless, he was so taken with her that he spent a year with her. She was slain by Telema-chus, who married her daughter, Cassiphone. Circle Sanctuary One of the most active and well-established interfaith Pagan centers. Circle Sanctuary, a Wiccan church, is located on a 200-acre nature preserve and herb farm...

Diana

In 1645 Matthew Hopkins began his infamous hunt of witches in England and obtained sworn evidence of written pacts. Some of his 230-plus victims may have been condemned largely on the basis of such evidence. Wiccans do not worship the Devil and have nothing to do with Devil's pacts. See stacker LEE. Lea, Henry Charles. Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft. Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania, 1939. Michelet, Jules. Satanism and Witchcraft. Reprint. Secaucus, N.J. Citadel Press, 1939....

Fox fire See jackolantern

Selena Fox

Fox, Selena 1949- American Wiccan high priestess, Pagan scholar, ecospiritual minister and ritual artist. Selena Fox is renowned for her leadership role in the international Wiccan-Pagan community and for founding Circle Sanctuary, a legally recognized Wiccan church with a worldwide Pagan ministry. Selena Fox PHOTO BY LYNNIE JOHNSTON COURTESY NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA Selena Fox PHOTO BY LYNNIE JOHNSTON COURTESY NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA Born October 20, 1949, in Arlington, Virginia,...

Budapest Z

Starhawk Witch

Tist whose work was GODDEss-inspired. Her grandmother Ilona was a herbalist and healer. At age three, Budapest had her first psychic experience, an apparition of Ilona at the time of her death. According to Hungarian tradition, a death apparition portends that the departed one will assume the role of guardian spirit in the life of the one who has observed him or her. Ilona has served in that capacity throughout Budapest's life. In childhood, Budapest appreciated nature, playing priestess and...

Graves William

The Devil scourges witches, 17th century was under the dominion of some peculiar species of lunacy. In The Occult 1971 , Colin Wilson suggests she was a highly sexed woman with a vivid imagination, who turned to fantasies to alleviate the boredom of a dull existence at some point, her fantasies became real to her. But after 15 years, the excitement of having a secret grew thin, and there was only one way to recharge it by making a public confession. The records also do not indicate what became...

See hex signs powwowing

Hex death Also called voodoo death, hex death is death from a HEX or curse resulting from black MAGIC or the breaking of a taboo. The critical factor in hex death is belief. If a person believes that a wiTCH or sorcerer can make him die by cursing him or by pointing a finger or bone at him, he probably will expire, and no amount of Western conventional medicine can save him. Hex death may be in part a self-fulfilling prophecy. In her studies on hex death, anthropologist Joan Hali-fax-Grof lists...

History

The exact role of the Druids in Celtic society is open to interpretation and varies according to geography. In the third century C.E., Diogenes Laertius said that the Druids were an ancient institution in the fourth century B.C.E., during the time of Aristotle. Julius Caesar said the Gaulish Druids were one of the two highest castes, along with the knights, and were organized under a single titular head. In Ireland, the Druids were the second highest of three castes, below the nobility and...

The Hierarchies and Functions of Demons

Collin Plancy

Demons have been catalogued, ranked and classified since at least 100-400, the period in which the Testament of Solomon appeared, describing Solomon's magic ring for commanding the djinn and listing the names and functions of various Hebrew, Greek, Assyrian, Babylonian, Egyptian and perhaps Persian demons. Christian demo-nologists of the 16th and 17th centuries catalogued demons into hierarchies of hell and ascribed to them attributes and duties, including ambassadorships to various nations....

Hare Witchcraft

Hare Witchcraft

Black-magic spells and was believed to aid burglars in breaking into homes and buildings. The hand of glory was the right hand of a murderer, ideally severed while the corpse still swung from the gallows, or cut during an eclipse of the Moon. It was wrapped in a shroud, squeezed of blood and pickled for two weeks in an earthenware jar with salt, long peppers and saltpeter. It was then either dried in an oven with vervain, an herb believed to repel demons, or laid out to dry in the sun,...

Cabot Laurie

Cabot Laurie

Over the years, she has had to deal with jokes, aversion and accusations that her dress is for purposes of commercial exploitation. At the urging of a friend, Cabot moved to Boston, where she and the friend rented a house that was the first house built on Salem's historic Chesnut Street, and had been home to NATHANIEL Hawthorne for a year. Three years earlier, Cabot had gone through a past-life regression to see the life of a Susan Sarah Prescott who supposedly had lived in Salem...

Innocent VIII Pope r

Giovanni Batista Cibo, elected pope in 1484, issued what has been termed one of the most important documents in the history of the Church's fight against witchcraft the Bull of 1484, Summis desiderantes affectibus Desiring with supreme ardor . Though credited with launching the Inquisition full force against witches, it actually followed a long line of earlier bulls inveighing against witchcraft and sorcery, issued since the 13th century. The Canon Episcopi of 906 had relegated witchcraft to...

Girdle measuring

Glanvil also reported the following chairs walked about the room by themselves a servant was chased by a stick of wood, while another was held by an invisible force sulphurous and other foul odors filled the air, which became hot clothing and children's shoes were thrown about the sounds of coins jingling were heard doors opened and shut violently by themselves blue, glimmering lights were seen footsteps and the rustling of invisible, silklike clothing were heard clawlike marks were found in...

Lea Material Toward A History Of Wichcraft

Puck is the Lord of the Greenwood, the Spirit of Albion, the Spirit of the Island of Graymayre. He is probably the last of the Old Ones, those who inhabited the Island in the days before the users of iron came. He keeps the Old Faith and does not suffer fools, which is why he is thought of as tricky but is a good and true friend to all who try to keep the Old Ways honestly. He will teach the language of the wild creatures and of the trees, but he must trust you first. Slade's Wild Rite of the...

Fairy Witch of Clonmel

Metamorphosing into animals and destroying the homes of mortals. Gowdie said the fairies manufactured their poisonous elf-arrow heads see ELF ARRows in their caverns, and she had seen the Devil working alongside them, putting the finishing touches on the flints. Fairies taught her how to fly, by mounting cornstraws and beanstalks and crying, Horse and Hattock, in the Devil's name As late as 1894 beliefs in fairies and witches in Ireland caused the murder of Bridget Cleary of Clonmel, who was...

Bowers Roy See Cochrane Robert

Bradley, Marion Zimmer 1930-1999 Best-selling science fiction and fantasy author and mentor of women in WICCA. Marion Zimmer Bradley's novels carry such Wiccan themes as the power of women and worship of the Earth GoDDEss. Bradley was sometimes called a witch or Wiccan priestess, which she publicly disavowed. She described herself as an occultist and student of ceremonial MAGIC, but not a witch. That is not my path in this life, stated Bradley, who was an ordained priest in the New Catholic...

Church and School of Wicca

CoA publishes a magazine, Witchcraft amp Wicca, and holds events in addition to the festival. The CoA assisted the PAGAN Federation with its conference in 1998 and 1999. Witchfest was launched in 2002. Until 2003, the CoA had a coVEN-finding service for people interested in joining the Craft, but had to discontinue it because there were not enough covens to accommodate the large number of applicants. Church and School of Wicca Religious and educational institutions...

Drawing Down the Moon

Greek Vase Drawing Down Moon

Orleans, where he found work as a cotton roller on the docks. He noticed he had the power, and his bosses made him overseer. Doctor John's fame spread, and he found he could get money for his tricks and services. He built a house on Bayou Road and bought female slaves. He married some of them, performing his own ceremonies, eventually boasting 15 wives and more than 50 children. New Or-leanians stared at him in public, for he rode in a carriage with horses as fine as any white man. When Doctor...

Fivefold kiss

Do, which introduced him to Zen thought and action, a discipline that has stuck with him throughout life. In Thailand, Fitch wrote two books the were never formally published but that later circulated in the Pagan community and became underground classics The Grimoire of the Shadows, a book of magical training techniques, and The Outer Court Book of Shadows, which reconstructs the magical and seasonal rituals of ancient Crete, Greece and Druidic Europe see also book of shadows . Material from...

Bright blessings See blessed be

Witches Familiars 1579

Broom A primary means of travel for witches, enabling them to travel at tremendous speed, according to lore. There are different origins of the association of brooms with witches. One is old pagan fertility rites, in which brooms, poles and pitchforks were ridden like hobbyhorses in fields and in dances. In some lore, witches are afraid of horses and ride brooms. In other lore, brooms are a natural tool for witches, in accordance with a custom of putting a broom outside a house to indicate a...

Great Rite

Graves reportedly remarked that Abigail would die and he would be hanged for her death. The same month as the childbirth, Graves was brought to a hearing on charges of witchcraft. No legal action was taken. Whether Abigail and her husband ever got her inheritance is not known. Hall, David D, ed. Witch-hunting in Seventeenth-Century New England A Documentary History 1638 1692. Boston Northeastern University Press, 1991. Great Rite In contemporary Witchcraft, a...

Curanderocurandera

Cornwall The Museum Witchcraft

Re-creation of a country witch in her cottage, at the Museum of Witchcraft in Boscastle, Cornwall PHOTO BY AUTHOR COURTESY OF MUSEUM OF WITCHCRAFT Re-creation of a country witch in her cottage, at the Museum of Witchcraft in Boscastle, Cornwall PHOTO BY AUTHOR COURTESY OF MUSEUM OF WITCHCRAFT curandero curandera Medicine men and women of Mexico, Mesoamerica and Hispanic communities. The curandero and curandera have a different healing function than their counterparts, the brujo and bruja male...

Aradia

Acknowledged drawing from other, unspecified sources. He never produced Maddalena or any documentation to verify her existence. Aradia recounts the story of Diana's daughter and of Diana's rise to become Queen of the Witches. Diana is created first among all beings and divides herself into light and darkness. She retains the darkness and makes the light into Lucifer whose name means light-bearer , her brother and son. She falls in love with him and seduces him by changing herself into a cat....

Devils Dandy Dogs See Wild Hunt

Devil Pact

Devil's mark According to witch-hunters, the Devil always permanently marked the bodies of his initiates to seal their pledge of obedience and service to him. He marked them by raking his claw across their flesh or using a hot iron, which left a mark, usually blue or red, but not a scar. Sometimes he left a mark by licking them. The Devil supposedly branded witches at the end of initiation rites, which were performed at nocturnal sABBATs. The marks were always made in secret places, such as...

Garlic

Other beneficiaries of his estate were PATRICIA C. Crowther and Jack L. Bracelin, author of a biography on Gardner, Gerald Gardner Witch 1960 . Wilson and her husband operated the museum for a short time and held weekly coven meetings in Gardner's cottage. They then closed the museum and sold much of the contents to the Ripley organization, which dispersed the objects to its various museums. Some of the items have since been resold to private collections. Valiente describes...

Athena

Canada's Most Visible Witch. Available online. URL http www.holysmoke.org wb wb0037.htm. Downloaded September 14, 2007. Charles Arnold. Witchvox.com. Available online. URL usnj amp id 65436. Downloaded October 1, 2007. Arras witches 1459-1460 A mass witch hunt in Arras, northern France. The accused were brutally tortured and promised their lives, then burned at the stake. The incident roused the ire of the duke of Burgundy, and eventually those executed were posthumously...

Children of Artemis

Name of Wardol, but the cat returned saying Wardol's faith was so great he could not be harmed. She also admitted that she always prayed in Latin, not in English, which seemed to upset the townspeople more than her alleged witchcraft crimes, for it was considered God's word that prayers could be said in the English and mother tongue that they best understand. Waterhouse replied that Sathan would not allow her to pray in English. While Joan remained free of trouble after the trial, Elizabeth...

Initiation

Witchcraft Magazine

Inanna Sumerian mother Goddess, queen of heaven and ruler of the cycles of the seasons and fertility. She was also called Nina the name Inanna may be a derivative of Nina. She was the most widely known goddess in the later periods of Sumer. The most important legend involving her is that of the sacrifice of the divine king for the fertility of the land, and his descent to the underworld. The myth is similar to that of IsHTAR, the Babylonian and Assyrian mother goddess with whom Inanna became...

Bible Verses Used By Hexenmeister

Pricking The Flesh Witch

Ozark Magic and Folklore. 1947. Reprint, powwowing Oral traditions of magical and spiritual healing concentrated in German-American Pennsylvania culture. German settlers who colonized the interior of Pennsylvania in the 1700s and 1800s brought with them their Old World beliefs in witchcraft and MAGIC. The Pennsylvania Dutch Dutch is a corruption of the German word for German, Deutsch clustered in the verdant rural farmland of York, Dauphin, Lancaster, Schuylkill, Carbon,...

Cunningham John See John Fian

Scott Cunningham Witch

Cunningham, Scott 1956-1993 Prolific Wiccan author and expert on earth and natural MAGIC, best known for his books on magical herbalism, earth power, crystals, gems and metals and the truth about Witchcraft. Born June 27, 1956, in Royal Oak, Michigan, Cunningham lived in San Diego from 1961 until his death in 1993. He began practicing WICCA in 1971. A full-time writer, he authored more than 30 fiction and nonfiction books and wrote scripts for occult videocassettes. Cunningham was introduced to...

Coven

Germain, expressing the dominant view of the Catholic Church, discredited these sabbats of covens as deceits of the Devil. It was not until the Inquisition that the existence of covens was taken more seriously. Accused witches were tortured into confessing that they were members of secret, subversive organizations, and were forced to implicate others see torture . British anthropologist MARGARET A. Murray held that covens were far more prevalent and organized than the Church was...

See Bamberg Witches Further reading

Witchcraft in Europe, A Documentary History 1100 1700. Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press, 1972. Robbins, Rossell Hope. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft amp Demonology. 1959. Reprint, New York Bonanza Books, 1981. Kabbalah also Cabala, Kabala, Qabalah A Jewish system of theosophy, philosophy, science, magic and mysticism founded on the Torah, developed since the Middle Ages and comprising an important part of Western occultism. Kabbalistic studies and...

Salem Old Witch Jail Dungeon Goodell

The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft amp Demonology. 1959. Reprint, New York Bonanza Books, 1981. Scot, Reginald. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. 1886. Reprint. Yorkshire, England E.P. Publishing, Ltd. 1973. Summers, Montague. The Geography of Witchcraft. London Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner amp Co. Ltd., 1927. Salem Old Witch Jail The jail that housed the accused SALEM WITCHES during the witch hysteria of 1692-93 was a cold, foul, rat-infested dungeon located near the North River....

Hermes

She turns into a bear or boar and kills her own son, then brings him back to life. In her dark aspect, she wears a necklace made of testicles her hair is made of writhing snakes which petrify, like the Medusa. Hecate is the goddess of all CROSSROADS, looking in three directions at the same time. In ancient times, three-headed statues of her were set up at many intersections and secret rites were performed under a full moon to appease her. Statues of Hecate carrying torches or swords were...

The Cabot Tradition

This tradition holds that Witchcraft is a science as well as a religion and an art. As a science, it may be applied to harness and expand psychic potential. The key to extrasensory perception is the harnessing of light energy and the sensitivity to alpha waves, which are part of the aura surrounding every living thing. Cabot says her method of controlling alpha waves is based on an ancient Pythagorean method of using colors and numbers. Cabot teaches that each individual is responsible for all...

Crowther Patricia C

Patricia Crowther

Crowther, Patricia C. 1927- A Witch and high priestess of Sheffield, Yorkshire, England, and one of the last surviving high priestesses initiated by GERALD B. GARDNER. Patricia Crowther has, since the 1960s, been a leading spokesperson for the Old Religion in books, the media and lecture appearances. Initiated formally into the Craft by Gardner, she is regarded by many as Gardner's spiritual heir. She has formed covens all over the United Kingdom. She was born Patricia Dawson on October 27,...

Gilber Tgerard Chelmsford Witches

Agnes Waterhouse

Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England. London Routledge amp Kegan Paul Lt., 1970. Guazzo, Francesco Maria. Compendium Maleficarum. Secau- cus, N.J. University Books, 1974. Marlbrough, Ray L. Charms, Spells amp Formulas. St. Paul Lewellyn Publications, 1987. Remy, Nicolas. Demonolatry. Secaucus, N.J. University Books, 1974. Chelmsford witches Four major witch trails in the 16th-17th centuries that resulted in numerous convictions and executions. The first trial occurred in...

Cernunnos

Medieval Art

Witches stirring up brew in cauldron ABRAHAM SAUR, ein kurtze treue warning, 1582 Witches stirring up brew in cauldron ABRAHAM SAUR, ein kurtze treue warning, 1582 also appear in some shamanic traditions. In Norse mythology, the patriarch god, Odin, drank magic blood from a cauldron of wisdom to obtain divine power. In Greek mythology, the witch goddess, Medea, could restore people to youth in a magic cauldron. The cauldron is linked to the chalice of the Holy Grail, which became incorporated...

Charles Lummis Witches Of San Rafael

The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. 1911. Reprint, Secaucus, N.J. University Books, 1966. Moon Since ancient times, the Moon has been associated with woman and her fertility, monthly cycle, powers of nurturing and powers of darkness. The Moon, ruler of the night and the mysteries of the dark, represents wetness, moisture, intuition, emotion, tides, the psychic, moods and madness. It embodies time, for its phases provided humankind with the first calendar. In contemporary...

Carmoney Witch See Mary Butters

Mary Butters The Witch

Carpenter, Dennis 1954- Prominent American Pagan scholar and, with his wife, sELENA Fox, codirector of Circle Sanctuary in Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin. Since the mid-1990s, Dennis Carpenter has served as a leading academic Pagan spokesperson, participating in interdisciplinary and interfaith networking and dialogue around the world. Carpenter was born on January 16, 1954, in Hillsboro, Wisconsin, a farming community in southwestern Wisconsin, not far from his present home at Circle. He was raised on a...

Necronomicon Toledo Salamanca

Sigils Summoning

Folklore, Myths and Legends of Britain. London Reader's Digest Assoc. Ltd., 1977. Maple, Eric. The Dark World of Witches. New York A.S. Barnes amp Co., 1962. Pennick, Nigel. Secrets of East Anglican Magic. London Robert Hale, 1995. Museum of Witchcraft The world's largest collection of paraphernalia and artifacts related to folk magic, witchcraft, wiCCA and ritual magic is based in Boscastle, Cornwall, England. The museum was founded by researcher CECIL wiLLIAMsoN and a version of it was owned...

Black Goat See Baphomet

Black Mass An obscene parody of the Catholic Holy Mass firmly entrenched in the popular notion of DEVIL worship. Black Masses are erroneously associated with all witches. They are not performed by Wiccans and Pagans, who do not worship the Devil, and it is doubtful that they were ever performed, at least in any significant numbers, by anyone in centuries past. The Black Mass exists more in fiction and film than it does in reality, though it is performed by various modern satanic groups see...

Foxwood Orion

They settled on land near Barneveld and Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin, and created Circle Sanctuary, a nature preserve, organic herb farm and church headquarters. Fox and Alan ended their common-law relationship in 1984, and Alan eventually left Circle Sanctuary to devote himself to a writing career. In 1986, Fox married Dennis Carpenter, a Wiccan priest and former school psychologist and now a renowned Pagan scholar. Fox and Carpenter live on Circle Sanctuary and work together to coordinate Circle...

Newengla N D

And QI -ncvil i1 -' r r hJ j Hl .Sfc-K Kllh OfHill TlfThlfc. Ir- Vm gt I-WH T iIH fr.-r.jc , y-udrJ lm w r, VA . - 1 1 n J tf, 6m bofri Ivt, r ri P, gt J- T-. r rt L v Ji. fcjrtr aJin.i.r pr i-W-iTii ' ' r thufiii ily -J JJti r.Y lid 1 C -im-JlT I-.i T gt Ell LW T iV Tii-ith il I f i HH id I. i -.'b 'n J 4 i rr-1 - , t J,, n fh-,-1 r- J t l r . V.- -, i i.V. I ,i t j. Title page of London edition of Cotton Mather's witch pamphlet, 1693 along with Mary Walcott, Abigail Williams, Ann Putnam, Jr....

Bewitchment See blasting curse hex illwishing maleficia spell

Bibliomancy The use of the Bible for divination. The Bible served as an important instrument of magical divination, particularly during medieval and Reformation times in Britain and parts of Europe. It was believed that the Bible, opened at random, would reveal one's fortunes or answer questions. Bibles laid on a child's head would induce sleep. Reading from the Bible to a pregnant woman would give her a safe delivery. Persons accused of wiTCHCRAFT and sORCERY were weighed against the great...

Hertford Witches

Some of the texts included Christian elements, such as the establishing of a closer relationship with Jesus, the Master of Masters. Members circulated various Catholic and Anglican writings and sermons. These were omitted from the materials published by Regardie. Elements of Golden Dawn rituals, Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry have been absorbed into the rituals of modern Witchcraft. See DION Fortune HERMETICA MAGIC FRANCIS ISRAEL REGARDIE. Gilbert, R. A. Golden Dawn...

Witches And Bells

Ments, claiming she was levitated down her stairs, that objects were lifted as though by invisible hands and that her body was being harmed. She recoiled and fell into fits if any of the accused touched her. Meanwhile, some of the accused confessed to more crimes than tormenting Shaw. They took credit for previous deaths, among them a minister, two children found strangled in their beds and two drowning victims on a ferryboat that sank. On April 5, 1697, a new commission of judges was...

Fertility Signals In Witchcraft

Wiccan Immortality Symbol

Leach, Maria, ed., and Jerome Fried, assoc. ed. Funk amp Wag-nall's Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend. New York Harper amp Row, 1972. Opie, Iona, and Moira Tatem. A Dictionary of Superstitions. New York Oxford University Press, 1989. Ishtar The great mother GoDDEss of ancient Assyrian and Babylonian mythology. Ishtar was said to be either the daughter of the sky god, Anu, or the MooN god, Sin. Over the course of time, Ishtar absorbed the characteristics of other goddesses...

Gypsies

The Gypsies' lack of religious creed is explained by an interesting Turkish legend When religions were distributed to the peoples of the earth a long time ago, they were written down to preserve them. Rather than write in books or on wood or metal, the Gypsies recorded their religion on a cabbage. A donkey came along and ate the cabbage. The Gypsy universe is populated with various deities and spirits. Del is both God and everything which is above the sky, heavens and heavenly bodies. Pharaun...

Hermes Trismegistus

Wicca Symol

He was charged with escorting the souls of the dead to the underworld. The dog is associated with Hermes for its intelligence and devotion. According to myth, Hermes was born of Zeus and Maia, daughter of Atlas. He was a shrewd thief from his earliest hours. Before nightfall on his first day of life, he stole most of Apollo's heifers. Zeus made him return the heifers. In contrition, Hermes invented the lyre and gave it to Apollo. Hermes continued to play malicious tricks but also was generous...

Benandanti

Testified to being transported through the air to sABBATs on the backs of demons or the Devil, and to being thrown off to fall to the ground when a church bell sounded in the night. Thunder and lightning storms were believed to be the work of witches and demons, and church bells also would be rung at an approaching storm in an attempt to dispel it. At someone's death, the tolling of the church bells helped the departing soul on its way to heaven and prevented evil spirits from interfering with...

Malew Street Haunted Isle Of

Areata, Calif. RJ Stewart Books, 2007. -. The Tree of Enchantment Wisdom of Faery Seership. York Beach, Me. Samuel Weiser, 2008. Frost, Gavin 1930- and Yvonne 1931- Witches, authors and founders of the Church AND SCHOOL OF WlCCA, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Frosts have steadfastly followed their own path in the Craft, and whenever that took them out of mainstream views, they have weathered much criticism from others in the Wiccan Pagan communities....