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Introduction vii Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark


PROSECUTIONS 1 Brian P. Levack, University of Texas at Austin

Introduction 3

Chapter 1: General Reasons for the Decline in Prosecutions 7

Judicial Scepticism and Procedural Caution 7

Changes in Witch-Beliefs 33

Religious Changes 40

Social and Economic Changes 44

Chapter 2: Patterns and Dynamics of Decline: Five Case-Studies (France, England, Scotland, Germany — Württemberg,

Hungary) 48

Chapter 3: The End of Prosecutions 74

The Process of Decriminalization 74

Judicial Effects of the Decline 78

Conclusion 86

PART 2: WITCHCRAFT AFTER THE WITCH-TRIALS 95 Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra, University of Amsterdam

Introduction 97

Chapter 1: From the Low Countries to France 102

The Netherlands and the Enchanted World 102

Belgium: From Witch-trials to Witch-lynching?? 113

France: Witches, Priests and the Ambiguity of Unwitchmg 117

Chapter 2: From the Mediterranean Countries to the British Isles, and Scandinavia 129

The Mediterranean Countries: From the Inquisition with Love 129

The British Isles: Fairies and Witches, Fire and Water 141

Scandinavia: Divergent Gender Patterns 151

Chapter 3: From Eastern and Central Europe to Germany and Switzerland 157

Eastern and Central Europe: Witches, Vampires and more 157

Germany and the Devil 162

Switzerland: The End of the journey 173

Conclusion: Cultures of Misfortune: Towards a Disenchanted

Europe? 175


ROMANTIC AND LIBERAL THOUGHT 191 Roy Porter, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicme

Chapter 1: Controversy c.1680-1800 193

Introduction 193

The Decline of Witch Practices and Beliefs m England 194

Changing Mind-Sets: Religion, Philosophy and Science 197

Eighteenth-Century Witchcraft Debates 199

Challenges to Witch Beliefs and Practices on the Continent 211

Chapter 2: The Enlightenment Crusade 219

Introduction 219

Voltaire and the Philosophes 219

The Status of Superstition 225

The Role of Medicme 226

Conclusion 235

Chapter 3: Culture and the Supernatural cj 680—1800 237

Introduction 237

The Reformation of Popular Culture 240

Survival: Art and Literature 245

Rebirth: The Occult in the Secular World 250

Chapter 4: The Disenchantment of the World in the Nineteenth

Century 255

Introduction: Pathologies of Superstition 255

The Grand Theory of Secularization 263

The Psycho|>athoiogy of Witchcraft and Magic 267

The Return of the Repressed 272

Conclusion: Secularization 274

Bibliography 283

Index 324

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