The Four Semi Vowels ya ra la va

A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya, similarly, r moving to a produces ra, 1 to a produces la, and u to a produces va. As a moving to a will not produce a new sound, there are only four semivowels. These are considered to be between vowels and consonants, and so are called antahstha ('stand between'), and are naturally voiced (ghosa). They are formed by slight contact (Tsatsprsta), and thus allow a restricted...

LB Introduction to Verbs

A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol 'y before it) develops to form a stem (anga), and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a complete verb (kriya). For example sense of 'cessation or absence of movement As in English, there are three persons (purusa) the first person (prathama-purusa), middle person (madhyama-purusa), last person (uttama-purusa). The word uttama derives from ud- (up) and -tama (superlative suffix) to mean best, uppermost, or highest, so that...

The Five Mouth Positions

The five mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat, is called the guttural position kanthya this is associated with the vowel a. Moving towards the front of the mouth, next is the palatal position talavya used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position murdhanya used by r, and the teeth dantya used by 1, and finally the two lips osthya used by u. The compound vowels make use of two mouth positions e...

Introduction to Compound Words

The dhatu root is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity in order to form a noun naman or adjective visesana etc., this activity needs to 'freeze', as it were, to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. This 'fixing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a suffix pratyaya the process in English is similar for example, from the verb 'attend' given in 7.B.1, are derived attendance the action of attending, attention the quality of attending, attentive having...

Vowel Sandhi

Vowel sandhi, as you would expect, arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, in the same sentence or line of poetry a vowel final is not changed before a consonant or in pausa, for example, at the end of a sentence. There are only six principles that cover all cases it is not necessary to learn these, but what is important is to understand them, and that means to work through each principle in sound and understand that they are simply statements of the...

Consonant Sandhi

As a rule, a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r 1, and may end before an avasana or pause with one of eight consonants k t t p n n m or h, or with any vowel except r and 1. The sandhi of words ending with a visarga h were discussed in 11.A.1 this table covers the remaining consonants. The first four of the final consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa except c and the remaining three are nasals. As with the visarga sandhi, this table is split according to the...

Illustrations of Dhatu Patha

The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice section 14.6 will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu is located in the index, then its artha found in the body, and finally the artha is examined in the dictionary. 1 MW758a y lft l.bhi, cl.3.P. to fear, be afraid of Dh.P. Index f t T 3T Dh.P. Body f gt T MW747a -RT bhaya n. yfbhi fear, alarm, dread NOTES This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it in the index this...

LlAl Visarga Sandhi

This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form 1 -Vs any vowel except a or a before the final s. 2 -Vr any vowel before the final r. 3 A followed by another is elided, and a preceding 3T f or 3 lengthened. Note The words iT or followed by hrasva -3T becomes TtS or 'il before any other letter the visarga is dropped. The table is simple enough. Basically a final s or r becomes r before a voiced ghosa sound which includes the vowels, of course the exceptions to this are 1 -Vs any...

Guna and Vrddhi

The grammatical terms guna 'secondary form' and vrddhi 'increase' can be considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. Panini defines guna as the three vowels and and vrddhi as and afr , and also gives the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels f and 1 The breve and macron diacritical marks, used together indicate a long OR short measure of the vowel. 2 In the grammatical formation of words, the dlrgha measure does not occur. 3 The vrddhi...

Verbal Prefixes

The English verb 'to tend' derives from the pie root sjten, to stretch when a prefix is appended to it, its meaning alters. For example with prefix meanings given Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood more or less , then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and prefixes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. Again, given the meanings of these verbs, it can be appreciated that that the prefixes are instrumental in modifying the original root...

More on Nouns Cases

Unlike the other case endings, the sixth sasthl indicates a relationship to a word other than the verb, i.e. to another noun in the sentence. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition 'of' or with an apostrophe, for example, 'he talks to the son of John', 'he drives John's car'. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb indeed John may be absent, even deceased. This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession, for example,...