LB Introduction to Verbs

A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol 'y before it) develops to form a stem (anga), and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a complete verb (kriya). For example sense of 'cessation or absence of movement As in English, there are three persons (purusa) the first person (prathama-purusa), middle person (madhyama-purusa), last person (uttama-purusa). The word uttama derives from ud- (up) and -tama (superlative suffix) to mean best, uppermost, or highest, so that...

Significance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols

Turning again to page 733 column two, find the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalini and -kalpa the hyphen not only indicates that the word is appended to Buddha (see section 12.3), but that kapalinl and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary, and this is why the next samasa, -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element, kaya and varna for example, may usually be separately found in the dictionary). Where the samasa is printed...

Introduction to Sandhi

Sandhi ('placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously, which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting. This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier, and for the various pronunciations of the English letter 'n' mentioned in that section (8.A.3). Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals for example, consider the English phrase 'cats and dogs', which is pronounced as 'cats and dogz'....

Practising the Alphabet

One way of memorizing the script is by writing it look at the form of the letter, sound it, and then write it. In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. When you write the letter, write the whole letter without referring back to the original. If, half way through, you forget how to continue the letter, then start again and do not continue with that half-completed letter. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form, but to associate a sound...

The Five Mouth Positions

The five mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat, is called the guttural position kanthya this is associated with the vowel a. Moving towards the front of the mouth, next is the palatal position talavya used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position murdhanya used by r, and the teeth dantya used by 1, and finally the two lips osthya used by u. The compound vowels make use of two mouth positions e...

Introduction to Compound Words

The dhatu root is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity in order to form a noun naman or adjective visesana etc., this activity needs to 'freeze', as it were, to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. This 'fixing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a suffix pratyaya the process in English is similar for example, from the verb 'attend' given in 7.B.1, are derived attendance the action of attending, attention the quality of attending, attentive having...

Vowel Sandhi

Vowel sandhi, as you would expect, arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, in the same sentence or line of poetry a vowel final is not changed before a consonant or in pausa, for example, at the end of a sentence. There are only six principles that cover all cases it is not necessary to learn these, but what is important is to understand them, and that means to work through each principle in sound and understand that they are simply statements of the...

Consonant Sandhi

As a rule, a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r 1, and may end before an avasana or pause with one of eight consonants k t t p n n m or h, or with any vowel except r and 1. The sandhi of words ending with a visarga h were discussed in 11.A.1 this table covers the remaining consonants. The first four of the final consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa except c and the remaining three are nasals. As with the visarga sandhi, this table is split according to the...

Illustrations of Dhatu Patha

The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice section 14.6 will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu is located in the index, then its artha found in the body, and finally the artha is examined in the dictionary. 1 MW758a y lft l.bhi, cl.3.P. to fear, be afraid of Dh.P. Index f t T 3T Dh.P. Body f gt T MW747a -RT bhaya n. yfbhi fear, alarm, dread NOTES This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it in the index this...

LlAl Visarga Sandhi

This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form 1 -Vs any vowel except a or a before the final s. 2 -Vr any vowel before the final r. 3 A followed by another is elided, and a preceding 3T f or 3 lengthened. Note The words iT or followed by hrasva -3T becomes TtS or 'il before any other letter the visarga is dropped. The table is simple enough. Basically a final s or r becomes r before a voiced ghosa sound which includes the vowels, of course the exceptions to this are 1 -Vs any...

Guna and Vrddhi

The grammatical terms guna 'secondary form' and vrddhi 'increase' can be considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. Panini defines guna as the three vowels and and vrddhi as and afr , and also gives the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels f and 1 The breve and macron diacritical marks, used together indicate a long OR short measure of the vowel. 2 In the grammatical formation of words, the dlrgha measure does not occur. 3 The vrddhi...

Noun Gender

The nouns considered thus far are all masculine pum-linga the paradigms below are for the neuter napumsaka-linga noun phala 'fruit', and the feminine strl-linga noun bala 'girl'. Note that, due to internal sandhi, the napumsaka-linga bahu-vaeana forms of prat ham a and dvitiya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by 'r' or's'. There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word, that applies here the saptami bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a or a...

Pronunciation of jna

The pronunciation of this is similar to the French 'J' as in 'Jean-Jacques', or as in the 'z' sound in the English words 'mirage', 'rouge', 'measure', or 'vision' but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position, and is strongly nasalized. As a practical method of approaching this sound, begin by sounding the English 'hiss' and holding the sibilant this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. Now sound the English 'his', again holding the sibilant note that the...

Verbal Prefixes

The English verb 'to tend' derives from the pie root sjten, to stretch when a prefix is appended to it, its meaning alters. For example with prefix meanings given Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood more or less , then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and prefixes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. Again, given the meanings of these verbs, it can be appreciated that that the prefixes are instrumental in modifying the original root...

More on Nouns Cases

Unlike the other case endings, the sixth sasthl indicates a relationship to a word other than the verb, i.e. to another noun in the sentence. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition 'of' or with an apostrophe, for example, 'he talks to the son of John', 'he drives John's car'. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb indeed John may be absent, even deceased. This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession, for example,...