Significance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols

Turning again to page 733 column two, find the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalini and -kalpa the hyphen not only indicates that the word is appended to Buddha (see section 12.3), but that kapalinl and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary, and this is why the next samasa, -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element, kaya and varna for example, may usually be separately found in the dictionary). Where the samasa is printed...

Illustrations of Dhatu Patha

The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice section 14.6 will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu is located in the index, then its artha found in the body, and finally the artha is examined in the dictionary. 1 MW758a y lft l.bhi, cl.3.P. to fear, be afraid of Dh.P. Index f t T 3T Dh.P. Body f gt T MW747a -RT bhaya n. yfbhi fear, alarm, dread NOTES This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it in the index this...

The Text Body

Turn to the first page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha after the heading the rest of the page, and subsequent pages, are divided into two columns. In the lefthand column the first entry is This is the first dhatu bhu together with its artha, or 'meaning', sattayam . Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored, and the next entry is and so on. Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns there may be more than one dhatu in the first column, and...

LlAl Visarga Sandhi

This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form 1 -Vs any vowel except a or a before the final s. 2 -Vr any vowel before the final r. 3 A followed by another is elided, and a preceding 3T f or 3 lengthened. Note The words iT or followed by hrasva -3T becomes TtS or 'il before any other letter the visarga is dropped. The table is simple enough. Basically a final s or r becomes r before a voiced ghosa sound which includes the vowels, of course the exceptions to this are 1 -Vs any...

Guna and Vrddhi

The grammatical terms guna 'secondary form' and vrddhi 'increase' can be considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. Panini defines guna as the three vowels and and vrddhi as and afr , and also gives the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels f and 1 The breve and macron diacritical marks, used together indicate a long OR short measure of the vowel. 2 In the grammatical formation of words, the dlrgha measure does not occur. 3 The vrddhi...