claims made by the mages in the foregoing part of this work, whenever this was demanded by the case and the theme, and I go on to reveal it again now. The subject is one among few requiring further development, for the very reason that this most fraudulent of crafts has exercised the greatest power all over the world for many centuries. It is no wonder that it has been so influential, since it alone has encompassed three other crafts that exercise the strongest control over the human mind and incorporated them into itself. 2. No one will doubt that it first came to birth in medicine, and that it was gradually introduced in healthful guise as if a higher and more holy form of that craft, and that it added the power of religion, to which even today the human race is quite blind, to promises that were so agreeable and desirable and, in order to acquire this too, mixed in the craft of astrology, since everyone is keen to know his future and believes that it is found most truthfully in the heavens. Thus magic held man's senses in a triple bond and grew to such a height that today it prevails over most of the world and in the East gives orders to kings of kings.
3. Without doubt magic was first invented over there in Persia by Zoroaster, as writers agree. But it is not established whether there was just one man of this name or whether there was another one afterward too. Eudoxus, who wanted magic to be understood as the most distinguished and useful among philosophical sects, asserted that this Zoroaster lived six thousand years before the death of Plato, and Aristotle follows him in this. 4. Hermippus, who wrote about the whole craft in a very careful way, compiled abstracts for and commentaries on the two million verses written by Zoroaster [FGH 1026 F57]. He reported that he [Zoroaster or Hermippus?] had been instructed by Azonaces, and that the man himself had lived five thousand years before the Trojan war. The thing that is particularly amazing is that the memory of the craft should have survived over such a long period, despite the fact that it was not preserved by any intervening commentaries or, moreover, any distinguished line of successors. 5. For how many of us have even heard of those who are just names and for whom no monuments survive, such as Apusorus and Zaratus the Medes, Marmarus and Arabantiphocus the Babylonians or Tarmoendas the Assyrian? However, what is most amazing is the fact that Homer kept so quiet about that craft in the case of Trojan war, while at the same time so much of his work on the wanderings of Odysseus was derived from the craft. Indeed the whole work is composed of nothing else, [6.] if indeed the mages wish Proteus and the songs of the Sirens to be understood in this way, and this is by all means to be the only subject of the episodes of Circe and the evocation of the dead. Nor has anyone subsequently explained how magic came to Telmessus, a most religious city, or when it crossed to the older women of Thessaly, whose name has long been proverbial in our world, even though magic was alien to the race, which at the time of the Trojan war at any rate was content with the medicines of Chiron and the thunder of Mars, god of war, alone. 7. I find it amazing that the reputation for magic was so strongly attached to the people of Achilles that Menander, who remains unrivaled in the precision if his writing, gave the title Thessalian Woman to his play about the deceits of women who draw down the moon. I would be inclined to believe that Orpheus was the first to introduce magic to the neighboring Thessalians, and that such a superstition on his part derived from medicine, had not all the whole of Thrace, his home, been completely ignorant of the magical craft. 8. As far as I can discover, the first man to have written an extant treatise on magic was Osthanes, who accompanied the Persian king Xerxes in his invasion of Greece.
He scattered, as it were, the seeds of the hideous craft along the way, infecting the world with it wherever they passed. More scrupulous scholars date another Zoroaster, Zoroaster of Proconessus, shortly prior to Osthanes. What is certain is that it was this Osthanes above all who worked the Greek peoples up to a ravening hunger, not a mere keenness, for that discipline. And yet I note that the highest literary distinction and repute have been sought from this discipline, in virtually all times since antiquity. 9. Certainly Pythagoras, Empedocles, Democritus, and Plato sailed abroad to learn it, in periods of self-imposed exile rather than mere visits. On their return they expounded it and included it among mysteries. Democritus promoted the work of Apollobeches of Coptus and Dardanus from Phoenicia, after he had sought out the latter's books in his tomb. The books he himself published were based on their teachings. It is more amazing than anything else in life that anyone accepted these books and that they were passed down in memory. They are so completely lacking in plausibility and rectitude that even those who approve of other parts of his oeuvre deny that these works are genuine. 10. But this is all in vain, for it is well known that it was Democritus who was primarily responsible for planting this sweetness in the minds of men. And this too is a thing full of wonder, that both of these crafts flourished side by side and at the same time, I mean medicine and magic. While Hippocrates promoted the former, Democritus promoted the latter. This was around the time of the Peloponnesian war in Greece, which began [431 B.C.] in the 300th year from the foundation of our city [753 B.C.!]. 11. There is another magical tradition too, deriving from Moses, Jannes and Iotapes, and the Jews, but this was many thousands of years after Zoroaster. The Cyprian magical tradition is all the more recent. A second Osthanes added no small influence to magic in the time of Alexander the Great. He had the honor of accompanying Alexander and clearly wandered over the whole earth, as no one could doubt.
12. Traces of magic still survive, to be sure, among the Italian tribes too, in our Twelve Tables and other pieces of evidence, which I laid out in an earlier book [28.17]. At long last in the 657th year of the city, in the consulship of Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus and Publius Licinius Crassus [97 B.C.] the senate passed a resolution banning human sacrifice. Up until that time hideous rites had been celebrated openly.
13. Certainly magic was everywhere in the Gallic provinces, and this was true even within living memory. For it was in the principate of Tiberius Caesar that their druids and prophets and healers of this type were abolished. But why should I make mention of this when the craft has even crossed the ocean and passed to the ends of the inhabitable portions of the earth? The Britain of today performs the rites of magic in manic fashion and with such elaborate ceremonies that you would think it was they who had given magic to the Persians. Peoples are agreed in their attachment to magic the whole world over, for all that they may be at war with each other or be unaware of each others' existence. It is difficult to overestimate the debt owed to the Romans, who did away with these terrible rites, in which it was an act of piety to kill a man, and indeed very good for you then to eat him.
14. The varieties of magic are several, according to Osthanes. He claims to divine from water, balls, air, stars, lamps, bowls, and axes and in many other ways, and he claims also to hold conversations with ghosts and the dead below. In our own era the emperor Nero discovered all these claims to be empty and false. Indeed his devotion to magic outstripped even his devotion to the lyre and the songs of tragedy. The greatness of his fortune in the human sphere developed desires in the deep flaws of his mind. His first ambition was to give commands to the gods. He had no nobler aims. No one ever supported any other craft more strongly.
15. To the pursuit of this end were devoted no shortage of money, power, inquiring intellect, or anything that the world allowed. Nero's abandonment of the craft is a huge and indisputable proof that it is bogus. Would that he had consulted the dead below and any of the gods about his suspicions rather than entrusting the inquiries to brothels and prostitutes. Any rites, however alien and wild, would have been gentler than his thoughts. With all too much cruelty did he fill our city with ghosts.
16. The mages have a number of excuses at their disposal, such as the claim that the powers do not obey those with freckles and are not seen by them. Was this perhaps the difficulty in his case? But there was nothing wrong with his limbs. It was freely available to him to pick out fixed days. It was easy to get hold of sheep pure black in color. And he was very keen on human sacrifice. The mage Tiridates had come to him when the triumph was celebrated over his land of Armenia, and in so doing had heavily burdened the provinces. 17. He had refused to sail, since they do not think it holy to spit in the seas or to contaminate them with other mortal necessities. He had brought mages with him, and he had initiated Nero into their meals. But even though Nero gave him his kingdom, he could not acquire this craft from him. For this reason we should be persuaded that magic is abominable, vain, and empty. Although it contains certain ghosts of truth, it is the powers of poisoning [veneficas] that are powerful here, not magical ones. 18. Someone may ask what lies the old mages told, in view of the fact that when we were young we saw Apion, by trade a grammarian, proclaim that the herb dog-head [cyno-cephalia], which was called the "Osiris-herb" [osiritis] in Egypt, enabled divination and was proof against all poisonings [veneficia], but that one died if one pulled it up whole. He also proclaimed that he had evocated ghosts in order to ask Homer about the land of his birth and his parents. However, he did not dare to tell the reply he claimed to have received.
19. A particular proof of the emptiness of their claims should be noted: of all animals they hold moles in the greatest awe, this even though they have been penalized by nature in so many ways. Not only are they always blind, but even then they are buried in other darkness besides and resemble the entombed. They trust the entrails of no other creature more than these. Nor do they judge any other creature to have a greater religious efficaciousness. Accordingly, if one consumes its heart, freshly excised and still palpitating, they promise that one will gain the ability to divine the outcome of current projects. 20. They claim that toothache is cured by the attachment of a tooth removed from the living mole. I shall supply their other tenets concerning this creature in the appropriate places. None of their claims will be found more plausible than the one that holds that moles combat the bite of the shrew mouse, since earth compacted by a wheel also combats it, as I have said.
Books 20-32 OF the ELDER PLINY'S Natural History are devoted to medicines. These books bristle with discussions of cures promoted by the mages (see 47). Pliny's attitude to their claims is usually—though not always—one of scoffing contempt for cheats and frauds. But the sheer amount of text devoted to them may indicate a greater level of respect for them than is explicitly acknowledged. The opening section of Book 30 contains his valuable history of magic and his more programmatic statements about the mages.
Where did Pliny get his information about the beliefs of the mages from? Dickie (1999) has recently argued that he draws on Pythagorean collections of magical lore. Such collections can be traced back through Anaxilaus of Larissa (see 288), Apion the grammarian, who wrote a book On Mages, and
Nigidius Figulus (see 137) to Bolus of Mendes, a Hellenized Egyptian whose floruit was probably the second century B.C. and who wrote treatises on magic pseudonymously ascribed to Democritus. For further manifestations of the mage tradition see 37, 46, 112.
Pliny contends that magic grew out of medicine and then incorporated into itself elements of religion and astrology (2). This is the start of a debate that continues to rage, with historians of ancient magic arguing still about the relationships between magic and religion and magic and science. In focusing on astrology here (see also 14) Pliny foregrounds the role of divination within magic, as the Romans tended to do; see 283-98 for Roman attitudes and 55, with commentary, for astrology. Eudoxus of Cnidus (3), however, saw magic rather as part of philosophy. This was not an absurd association, when one bears in mind Pythagoreanism's affinities with magic (1-9, 57-64; see also 14, 286, 299).
Eudoxus (408-355 B.C.) studied under Plato, among others, and in Egypt. He founded a school in Cyzicus. He was survived by Plato, and so is unlikely to have been the source of the information that Zoroaster lived six thousand years before the latter's death. Aristotle is said to have followed Eudoxus's views here (3). The ancient biographies of him report that he wrote an On Magic, but this was probably apocryphal. Hermippus of Smyrna (4) lived in the third century B.C. (see 1); the embedded fragment is one of three that survive from his work On Mages (FGH 1026 F56-8). The Latin leaves it ambiguous as to whether Azonaces (some manuscripts have Agonaces) was the tutor of Zoroaster or of Hermippus, but context makes the former more likely.
One of the most important aspects of this discussion is its explicit unification within the same category—whatever that category is—of figures of very different varieties (5-13). Compared, explicitly or implicitly, to the mages (of Persia, Media, Babylon, Assyria, and even Armenia, all closely identified [5, 16]) are: Circe, the Sirens, Proteus, Thessalian witches, Carian Telmessus (known for various forms of divination), Orpheus, Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Democritus, as well as Jewish, Cypriot (Cyprus is identified as a particular home for magic in later sources), Latin, and Gallic sorcerers. For all that magic spread over the entire world, it is presented as fundamentally external and antithetical to Roman culture (13).
The rationalization of conflicting claims in the tradition twice leads to the differentiation of originally single figures into plural ones. "Zoroaster" (3) and "Zaratus" (5) are both alike transcriptions of the Zend Zara(t)hustra, and Pliny further suggests that there may have been two Zoroasters (9), with a more recent one hailing from Proconessus, home of Aristeas (6-7). Ost(h)anes (the manuscripts of Pliny and other sources are divided between the two forms) is similarly differentiated into an early classical one, Xerxes' associate (8), and an early Hellenistic one (11); it is difficult to identify this second Ostanes with the son of the great one who appears in 46. The development of the great Osthanes into the key figure that introduced the wisdom of the mages to the Greek world evidently occurred after Herodotus, who features him without mention of magic or magery. For Osthanes see also 161, 202, 232, 299.
The Egyptian background to "Democritus," that is, Bolus of Mendes, becomes clear in his promotion of "Apollobeches of Coptus" (otherwise unknown) and his discovery of Dardanus's books in his tomb, for all that he is described as Phoenician (9). This was a well-established theme in (Graeco-) Egyptian lore: see 46 and 53, with commentaries. The name Dardanus appears to have been applied to a disparate range of magical figures, including the Dardanus that the Greek magical papyri know as a founder of mysteries and the Biblical Darda(la): see further 112, 127, 249-50, 299. The blending of figures from the Jewish tradition into the magical mix (Moses, Jannes, and Iotapes, 11) also speaks of Egypt. Hellenistic Alexandria was home to a large Hellenized Jewish population
The treatment of Nero's adventures in magic is particularly valuable (1417). The notion that magic could compel the gods was a common one: see 13, 14, 96, 300. Accordingly, it well suits the projection of Nero as megalomaniac that he should be represented as turning to it. Pliny's use of the case of Nero to disprove the efficacy of magic is a persuasive one: if even he could not get it to work, with all the world's resources at his command, and with complete freedom from moral restraint, how could anyone else?
The explanation of the efficaciousness of the mole in divination (19) makes appeal to necromancy. The mole resembles a dead man in his tomb. For Circe (6), see 72, 144. For Thessalian witches (6), see 96-107. For drawing down the moon (7) see 214-23. For the opposition of Hippocrates (10) to the mages see 13. For lychnomancy and lecanomancy (14) see 163-6. For the twelve tables (12) see 280.
46 The ghost of Ostanes is called up by Pseudo-Democritus and his own son, also Ostanes, to reveal the secrets of alchemy i A.D.?
[Democritus] Physica et Mystica II p. 42, 21 Berthelot (Bidez and Cumont 1938:2:317-8)
After learning these things from the teacher I mentioned earlier [i.e., the great
Ostanes], and having come to understand the diversity of matter, I tried to find a way to transmute natures. Since our teacher was dead, and we had not yet completed our education, but were still engaged in the understanding of matter, I ventured to bring him from Hades, as they call it. Setting my hand to this, I summoned him at once and said, "Will you provide me with gifts in return for what I have done for you?" He made no reply. I beseeched him repeatedly, and asked him how to transmute natures. He told me it was difficult to speak, because the demon did not allow him. All he would say was: "The books are in the shrine." I turned back to the shrine and began to see if I could avail myself of these books. For he had not mentioned them to me in life, and he died intestate. Some say he used poison to separate his soul from the body; but his son says that he died suddenly while feasting. Before death he had contrived to reveal the books to his son alone, since he had come to maturity. None of us knew anything of these books. We searched, but we found nothing. We expended a great deal of labor in the attempt to fuse or blend essences and natures. Some time after we had given up trying to join matter, there was a festival and we were all feasting in the shrine. When we were in the temple building, a pillar split open of its own accord. We could see nothing in it. But Ostanes [i.e., the son] said that his father's books were deposited in it. He brought them out to plain sight. We huddled over them and were surprised to see that we had not been leaving anything out. However, we found this useful phrase everywhere, "Nature delights in nature; nature conquers nature; nature dominates nature." We were amazed that he had crystallized all his writings in this brief phrase.
This FRAGMENT, DERIVING FROM the FOUNDING work of ancient alchemy, concludes with a crystalization of the craft's underlying principles of sympathy, antipathy, and neutralization. The date of the text is uncertain, as is its rela-
tionship to the work of Bolus of Mendes. Other testimonia for the great Os-tanes' revelation to Democritus (collected by Bidez and Cumont 1938, vol. 2) add nothing to the necromantic episode here but make it clear that the shrine in question was in Memphis in Egypt. Hence the two great magical cultures, Persia and Egypt, are brought together (see 96). For the notion of two Ostaneses see 45. Presumably the great Ostanes had revealed the existence alone of the (already hidden) books to his son but not their contents.
This tale's themes are found refracted in a number of Graeco-Egyptian contexts. The association of Egyptian books, incomplete education, ambitious but failed experimentation with technology, Egypt, revelation in a crypt, and the manifestation of a ghost is also found in the preface of Thessalus of Tralles (53; see also 54, 148). It is similarly told that Bitys/Bitos found a book of Thoth-Hermes in a sanctuary at Sais (Iamblichus On the Mysteries 8.5 and 10.7; Zosimus On Apparatus and Furnaces Greek fragments 230-5 Jackson; see 161).The erotic spell at 213 claims to hail from a book of Hermes found in an inner chamber at Heliopolis. In addition, the Ptolemaic Demotic-Egyptian tale of Prince Khamwas tells how he discovered a book of Thoth-Hermes in the tomb of Naneferkaptah, and of his encounter with his reanimated mummy and the ghost of his wife Ahwere there (Setne i = Cairo Museum Papyrus no. 30646, translated at Lichtheim 1973-80, 3:125-38). For further magical books, compare the formularies among the Greek magical papyri and see 43, 45, 115. See further 253 for the discovery of revelations on a Syriac stele.
Pliny Natural History 28.92-106
47 The mages and the uses of the hyena 92. Of all animals the mages accord the deepest admiration to the hyena, inasmuch as they have attributed magical skills to it too and specifically the ability to deprive men of their minds and draw them to itself. We have already dealt with its annual change of sex and other aspects of its portentous nature [8.105]. Now we shall review the medical resources it provides. 93. Panthers above all are said to be terrified of it, so much so that they do not even attempt to stand their ground, nor do they attack a man carrying an object made from its skin. There is an amazing claim that if the pelts of both creatures are hung up back-to-back, the panther's hairs fall off. When it is being hunted, it veers rightward in order to seize the course of the hunter and put him in front. If the creature manages to do this, the hunter loses his mind and can even fall off his horse. But if it twists rather leftward, this is an indication that it is failing and that it will be swiftly captured. Also, it is more easily caught if the hunter ties seven knots each into his belt and into the whip with which he directs the horse. 94. Then, so deviously evasive is the empty craft of the mages, they require that the creature be caught when the moon is traversing the constellation of Gemini, and that virtually every last hair be kept safe. The skin that was on its head, if tied on, cures headache. The gall, smeared on the forehead, cures eye inflammation. Or, to cure this once and for all, one should make a decoction of the gall with three ladles of Attic honey and an ounce of saffron. This is also a way to cure dimness of sight and cataracts. 95. If the medicine is allowed to mature, it induces clear vision more effectively, but it must be kept in a copper container. The same medicine cures also eye ulcers, eye scabs, and growths and scars on the eyes. But glaucoma is cured by anointing the eyes with the juices of the fresh roasted liver mixed with honey, with the foam skimmed off. The hyena's teeth assuage toothache when brought into contact, or when worn as amulets in corresponding order. They also cure pains in the shoulders and arms. The teeth of the same creature, if taken from the left side of its muzzle, bound up in sheepskin or goatskin, cure severe stomach aches, the lungs, taken in food, cure coeliac pains, [96.] and their ashes, smeared on with olive oil, cure belly pain. Painful sinews are soothed by the marrow from its backbone, made into a paste with old olive oil and gall. Quartan ague is soothed by three tastes of its liver before the attack is due. The ash from the creature's backbone soothes gout, if mixed with the tongue and right flipper of the seal and bull's gall. All these things should be cooked up together and smeared onto a hyena skin. Hyena gall is beneficial for the same disease, combined with the Assos stone. 97. Those suffering from trembling, spasms, nervousness, and heart palpitations should eat part of the hyena's heart, cooked, with the remainder of the organ mixed with its brain and smeared on. This mixture removes hair, when smeared on, as does the pure gall. If you do not want any of them to grow back, they must be torn out first. Unnecessary eyelashes can be removed in the same way. Meat from the hyena's loins should be eaten for pains in the loins, and it should be smeared on in a mixture with olive oil. Barrenness in women is cured by its eye, taken in food with liquorice root and anise. The method promises conception within three days. 98. One of its large teeth, tied on as an amulet with thread, is said to be helpful against the terrors of the night and the fear of ghosts. They bid us fumigate the raving mad with one eye and to hang the other one on the person's chest, together with kidney fat or liver or skin. The white flesh from a hyena's breast, together with seven of its hairs, and a stag's penis, bound up in the skin of a gazelle and hung from a woman's neck, preserve her from miscarriage. 99. The hyena's genitals, taken in honey, stimulate desire for the sex corresponding to the organs, even when men detest sex with women. Indeed, harmony is maintained throughout the house if one keeps in it the same genital organ and a vertebra from the backbone with some skin still sticking to it. Hence they call this spinal vertebra "the knot of Atlas." It is the first vertebra. They hold it among the cures for epilepsy too. 100. They claim that snakes are put to flight by the burning fat of the hyena. The jawbone, ground up in anise and taken in food, calms down shivering fits. A fumigation with the same mixture induces periods in women. So bogus are their claims that they assert that if a tooth from the upper right part of the muzzle is tied to one's arm, the blows of the spears one throws will never go astray. The palate of the same creature, desiccated and warmed with Egyptian comfrey, and refreshed in the mouth three times, cures halitosis and mouth ulcers. Those who keep the creature's tongue in their shoe under their foot are not barked at by dogs. 101. The left part of the brain, smeared on the nostrils, gives relief from serious diseases in men and animals. The skin of the forehead affords protection against the evil eye [fasci-nationes]. The meat from the neck, if eaten or if desiccated and drunk, relieves pain in the loins. Sinew pain is to be fumigated by sinews from the back and the shoulders. Hairs taken from the muzzle, if brought into contact with women's lips, constitute an erotic charm. The liver, given in a drink to the patient, heals gripes and bladder stones. 102. The heart, taken in food or drink, soothes all the body's pains, the spleen soothes spleens, the caul, mixed with olive oil, soothes inflamed ulcers, the bone marrow soothes sinew pain and restores tired sinews. The sinews of the kidneys, drunk in wine with incense, restore fertility taken away by witchcraft/ poisoning [veneficium]. The womb, mixed with the skin of the sweet pomegranate, given in drink, is helpful for the womb of women. Women struggling in labor, fumigated with the fat from the loins, give birth immediately. Marrow from the back, worn as an amulet, gives help against empty hallucinations. The sexual organ from the males gives relief to those suffering from spasms, [103.] when used for fumigation, and it similarly helps bleary eyes. The feet, kept by, are helpful for ruptures and against inflammations; one touches the affected part with them: the left feet for the right side, the right for the left. The left foot, passed over a woman in the course of giving birth, is fatal, but she gives birth easily if the right foot is applied. The membrane which held the gall, drunk in wine or taken in food, helps heartburn. The bladder, drunk in wine, helps against urinary incontinence. The urine which is found in the bladder, [104.] with the addition of oil, sesame, and honey, relieves long-time acidity in the stomach when drunk. The first and the eighth ribs, if used in fumigation, are healthful for ruptures. The bones from the spine are healthful for women giving birth. The blood, taken together with pearl barley, is healthful for gripes. If the doorposts are touched all over with this same blood, the craft of the mages is thwarted. They cannot summon gods or hold converse with them, whether the attempt is made with lamps or with a bowl, with water or with a globe, or by some other means. If the meat is eaten, it is efficacious against the bites of a rabid dog, and the liver is more efficacious still. The flesh or bones of a man, found in the stomach of a killed hyena, are helpful for gout when used in fumigation. 105. If nails are found among these parts, the death of one of the cap-turers is indicated. Feces or bones passed as the animal is killed are powerful against magical attack. Excrement found in the bowels, when dried, is powerful against dysentery. Drunk or smeared all over the body together with goose fat, it helps those who have been harmed by evil potions. But for those bitten by a dog the fat should be smeared on, and they should lie on the skin for aid. On the other hand, if you are pasted with a decoction of the ash of the left pastern-bone and the blood of the weasel, you will be hated by all. 106. This can be done also with a decoction of the eye. Their most emphatic recommendation is the use of the end part of the intestinal tube against the unfair behavior of leaders and rulers, and for success in elections and law-courts and the winning of suits, provided that one carries it with one. If a man looks upon a woman while wearing the anus of the same creature as an amulet on his left arm, it acts as an erotic charm of such immediate power that she follows him at once. The ashes of the hairs from the same body part, mixed with olive oil and smeared onto men of reprehensibly decadent lifestyle, makes them adopt not merely a modest but actually an austere mode of conduct.
This IS one OF PLINY'S more extensive investigations of the magical uses of a particular animal. For the use of animal parts in amulets see also 253, 266. For the hyena's change of sex (92), see also Ovid Metamorphoses 15.408-10. For conception, fertility, and abortion magic (97-103) see 233-5. The "knot of Atlas" (99) is so called because as the topmost vertebra it supports the skull, as Atlas supports the globe. For epilepsy see 13. For erotic attraction magic (99, 101, 106) see 204-32. For snake dismissal (100) see 49. For magic against magic (101-2, 104) see 269-70. For the compulsion of the gods (104) see 13, 14, 96, 300. For legal curses (106) see 168-72, 237.
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