Byzantine distinctions of the varieties of magic Sorcery [goetea magic [magea Sorcery the derivation of the term goesand magic and witchcraftpoisoning [phar

make/a] are different things. They were the xA.D. inventions of the Medes and the Persians. Magic is the invocation of beneficent

Suda sv goeteia demons to achieve a good goal, as with the miracles of Apollonius of Tyana. The

(sorcery) term "sorcery" is applied to the raising of the dead by invocation, and the term is k derived from the wailing [goo/] and the laments that are performed at tombs. The term "witchcraft/poisoning" is used whenever some deadly drug is made into a po tion and given to someone by mouth. Magic and astrology were begun by the Magousaioi. For the Persians were called Magog by the natives.

THE NAME "MAGOUSAIOI" IS ITSELF DERIVED from the Semitic version of makus. The Medes and Persians are presented as the inventors of all varieties alike of magic, the distinctions between which are overschematic and not borne out by ancient usage. The Suda seems to read pharmakeia as signifying "poisoning" almost to the exclusion of "witchcraft," while the claim that mageia was only used for good magic does not survive casual scrutiny. Nor was the term goeteia, as used in ancient sources, confined to the raising of the dead, but the Suda is in fact right about the etymology. So the goes-sorcerer was indeed in origin likely to have been concerned with the manipulation of the ghosts of the dead through wailing, be this for purposes of laying or raising or both. For uses of the goet- root in particular association with the manipulation of the dead, see 15, 36.

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