certainty that Institoris and Sprenger forged the Approbation of the Theological Faculty of the University of Cologne which was affixed to the Malleus Maleficarum. So the "infallible Mother Church's" teaching on witchcraft began with a forgery, and continued with another forgery when the first one no longer served its purpose. It has been further suggested that the translation of the Authorised Version of the Bible of Exodus, Chap. XXII, v. 18, as "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live" is yet a third forgery, perpetrated to please the witch-hunting King James I, in whose reign it was made. The word translated "witch" actually means "poisoner"; yet this text was the death-warrant of thousands. However, the Lutherans in Germany also used the text in the same sense, though I think learned men there must also have known that it was a false translation.
1066. The Norman Conquest.
1090-1270. The era of the Crusades, which ended in final failure.
1100. Death of William Rufus (who was almost certainly a pagan).
"In the 10th year of the reign of King John" took place the first recorded trial for witchcraft in Britain. King John is said to have been friendly with the witch cult. The verdict in the above case was "Not Guilty".
1207. Pope Innocent III commenced to preach the Albigensian Crusade, directed against the Cathari in the South of France.
1234. Extermination of the Stedingers.
1290. Edward I expelled the Jews from England.
1303. The Bishop of Coventry accused by the Pope of being a witch.
1307-1314. Persecution of the Knights Templars.
Pope John XXII was Pope from 1316 to 1334. He was the author of some of the earliest formal decrees against witchcraft.
1324. Trial of Dame Alice Kyteler of Kilkenny, by the Bishop of Ossory. She took refuge in England where she had "highly-placed friends". Later, King Edward III, in whose reign this happened, was in a state of feud with the Bishop of Ossory for some years. Was he one of the "highly-placed friends"?
1349. Foundation by Edward III of the Order of the Garter (which may have had connections with the witch cult).
1406. King Henry IV gives directions to the Bishop of Norwich to search for and arrest witches and sorcerers in his diocese.
1430. Trial of Joan of Arc.
1484. Papal Bull of Pope Innocent VIII, Summis desiderantes affectibus. (Particularly fierce attack on heretics and witches.)
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