1857. A French Spiritualist, Allan Kardec, upon instructions from his "Guides", reintroduced the ancient doctrine of reincarnation publicly into Europe.
1892-1897. One of the greatest impostures of modern times was perpetrated in France by two Freethinkers, Dr. Charles Hacks and Gabriel Jogand. They published a series of "revelations of Satanism", of the most sensational type, which were firmly believed in by large numbers of high-ranking clergy. Jogand was actually received in audience by Pope Leo XIII and patronised by Bishops and Cardinals. Then on April 19th, 1897, in the lecture room of the Geographical Society in the Boulevard St. Germain, he admitted it was all a fabrication, intended as an elaborate practical joke upon the credulity of the clergy. In spite of this, a number of them continued to believe in it, and most modern descriptions of "Satanism" are in fact based upon these fake "revelations". It had proved too good a stick to beat Spiritualism with! (Jogand had declared Spiritualism to be a branch of Satanism.) Daniel Douglas Home, the famous medium, was in his day declared by the Church to have a pact with the Devil, and to celebrate Black Masses.
1921. Dr. Margaret Alice Murray published her book, The Witch Cult in Western Europe; it was followed by The God of the Witches. In these books, Dr. Murray stated that witchcraft was the remains of the ancient pagan religions of Europe, and she identified the Horned God of the witches as being the oldest representation of a deity known to man, and identical with the deity depicted in the Palaeolithic cave paintings. Her books were attacked by the Rev. Father Montague Summers as being a revival of the heresy of Girolamo Tartarotti (see above).
1949. G. B. Gardner, under the pen-name of " Scire ", wrote an historical novel called High Magic's Aid, which was published in this year. It was, so far as he knows, the first book written by an initiated witch, describing, under the guise of fiction, something of what a witch believes.
1951. The Witchcraft Act of 1735 was repealed, and replaced by the Fraudulent Mediums Act, which legally recognises the existence of genuine mediumship and psychic powers, and provides penalties only for those who fraudulently pretend to possess such powers in order to make money.
1954. Witchcraft Today, by G. B. Gardner, was published; the first book ever written describing what witches are and what they
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