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JACQUIER, NICHOLAS (?-1472). A Dominican friar who was active at the Council of Basel in 1432 and 1433, Jacquier was later an inquisitor in northern France, where he participated in some witch trials, in Bohemia from 1466 to 1468, and at Lille from 1468 until his death. In 1458, he wrote a treatise entitled Flagellum haereticorum

fascinariorum (Scourge of Heretical Witches). Here, he argued that witches represented a new form of heresy, worse than any that had been seen in the past. The famous canon Episcopi's dismissal of night flight as an illusion, for example, did not apply to this new form of heresy. Jacquier joined Jean Vineti and Johannes Hartlieb in being among the first authorities to systematically address the reality of night flight and the witches' sabbath.

JAMES VI and I, KING (1566-1625). King first of Scotland (as

James VI, 1567-1625) and then later also of England (as James I, 1603-1625), James owes his long reign to the fact that his mother, Mary Queen of Scots, was accused of murdering her husband and was forced to abdicate her throne in 1567 in favor of her infant son, then just 13 months old. Regents actually governed the kingdom until 1583 when James took up personal rule. Several years later, the king became directly involved in matters of witchcraft with the affair of the North Berwick Witches. A group of witches were put on trial in Edinburgh and were, in fact, questioned in the presence of the king. They claimed, among other things, to have tried to murder him by raising storms at sea to drown him while he was aboard ship. This case aroused the king's interest in witchcraft, and he began to study the subject. He was alarmed at the skepticism about witchcraft expressed in such works as Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft and Johann Weyer's De praestigiis daemonum (On the Deception of Demons). In response, he wrote his own, far more credulous work, Daemonologie (Demonology), first published in 1597. In 1603, Elizabeth I of England died without a direct heir, and James became king of England as well as Scotland. His Daemonologie was issued in a new edition, and he ordered copies of Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft to be burned throughout England. A year later, in 1604, Parliament passed a new witchcraft act, strengthening the legislation against witches already passed under Elizabeth I.

James often has been regarded as a severe persecutor of witches. Certainly no other European monarch took so direct an interest in matters of witchcraft, to the extent of producing a treatise on the subject. Nevertheless, the material in Daemonologie is not in any way innovative. Witch-hunting was quite severe in Scotland in the early years of James' reign, but (aside from the North Berwick case) the king had little direct involvement, and after the 1590s, the number of trials in Scotland began to subside. Likewise in England, although the final and most severe form of the witchcraft act was passed in 1604 under James' rule, earlier monarchs had already established similar legislation. Moreover, the most severe cases of witch-hunting did not occur in England until after James' reign. In all, he seems simply to have shared in the concern over witchcraft widespread in his time, and by the end of his life, in fact, he seems to have become increasingly skeptical about the extent of the danger witches represented.

JEWS. Although often persecuted by Christian authorities in medieval and early-modern Europe, and always marginalized within Christian society, Jews were only rarely accused of being witches. Witchcraft, insofar as it was believed to be predicated on a pact with the devil and the worship of demons, was regarded by Christian authorities as a heresy, and Jews, as non-Christians, by definition could not be found guilty of heresy. Jews, for their part, shared little of the Christian concern over witchcraft. Judaism did not have as developed a concept of the devil as existed within Christianity, and while Judaism did have elaborate systems of demonology, it allowed for the existence of good as well as evil spirits that could be called upon to perform magic, and so not all forms of magical practice were as automatically or thoroughly linked to evil as they were by Christian religious authorities.

In Christian minds, however, Judaism was believed to be very similar to witchcraft in a number of ways, and at times virtually identical to it. Christian authorities typically considered Jews to be a significant threat to the faith, similar to witches, and often conceived of elaborate, conspiratorial plots by Jews to undermine Christian society, just as they suspected that witches were engaged in an organized conspiracy directed by Satan. Christian stereotypes about Jews that had developed in the Middle Ages were often carried over and applied to witches as well. For example, in the earliest documents from the late Middle Ages, secret gatherings of witches are referred to not as sabbaths but as synagogues. The image of witches murdering children and devouring them also derives partly from earlier anti-Jewish stereotypes. Jews were often accused of murdering Christian children, draining their blood, or eating them in a parody of the Eucharist.

JOAN OFARC (ca. 1412-1431). Often regarded as one of the most famous victims of accusations of witchcraft, Joan was burned at the stake in the city of Rouen in Normandy on May 30, 1431. In fact, although Joan was charged with certain crimes relating to witchcraft, these proved incidental, at best, to her final conviction and execution, which in any event was a foregone conclusion because of the highly politicized nature of her trial during the Hundred Years War fought between the English and the French.

Joan was born in Domrémy in Champagne and began hearing voices while still quite young. She became convinced that these voices were those of the Archangel Michael and Saints Margaret and Catherine, and that they were commanding her to help save France from the invading English. Accepted by the French dauphin, Charles VII, as a genuine messenger of God, she was allowed to lead a force to the relief of the city of Orléans, besieged by the English. She broke the siege and inflicted a major defeat on the English. Slightly over two months later, on July 17, 1429, she was present when Charles VII, having won several other victories, was crowned king in the cathedral of Reims. She led several more campaigns, but in May 1430 she was captured and turned over to the English by their allies the Burgundians. She was put on trial in Rouen, deep in English-held territory.

Joan was accused of a wide variety of crimes and heresies. Her voices were assumed by her judges to be demonic, and she was charged with consorting with fairies, summoning demons, worshiping them, performing sorcery, and making pacts with the devil. Such charges are certainly similar to those that figured in most cases of witchcraft, but they do not represent a clear accusation of that crime. Moreover the charges of sorcery made against Joan were withdrawn for lack of evidence before her final conviction, which was based entirely on charges of false beliefs and heresy. Nevertheless, for her supposed involvement with demons and her apparently supernatural accomplishments, many contemporary authorities did regard Joan as something very akin to a witch. The early authority Johannes Nider included Joan in his discussion of witchcraft in the fifth book of his large treatise Formicarius (The Anthill), although he consistently termed her a magician (maga) and not a witch (malefica).

JOHN XXII, POPE (1244-1334). As one of the most important and powerful popes of the early 14th century, John, who reigned from 1316 until 1334, contributed significantly to the development of ecclesiastical concern over demonic magic. He ordered papal inquisitors to begin taking action against suspected demonic sorcery because this was deemed to be a form of heresy, and he issued a sentence of automatic excommunication against any Christian who practiced such magic. His bull Super illius specula remained an important ruling against practitioners of demonic magic for the remainder of the Middle Ages.

Born Jacques Duese in the French city of Cahors in 1244, John studied both theology and canon law. He came to the papal throne only after a hotly contested election during which the papacy had been vacant for nearly two years. From the very beginning of his pontificate, John was especially concerned with matters of sorcery and demonic magic. He feared that his opponents both within and outside the church were trying to assassinate him through sorcery. In 1317, he had Hugues Geraud, the bishop of Cahors, arrested on such charges, and other arrests were to follow. From 1320 to 1325, charges of sorcery and heresy were brought against many of John's political enemies in Italy, especially members of the Visconti family, the powerful rulers of Milan.

Although it is clear that John often used accusations of sorcery in an entirely cynical way as a political tool, he seems also to have been genuinely concerned about such practices, both because of the perceived threat to his own safety, and because of the heresy involved in dealing with demonic forces. In 1320, he instructed William, Cardinal of Santa Sabine, to order that the papal inquisitors of Toulouse and Carcassonne in southern France begin taking action against anyone who engaged in demonic invocation or sorcery. Later, in 1326, he issued the bull Super illius specula, in which he declared a sentence of automatic excommunication on any Christians who invoked or worshiped demons in order to perform any kind of magic. Although John was clearly more concerned with learned demonic magic, or necromancy, than with common maleficium of the sort later associated with witchcraft, his rulings formed an important basis for later inquisitorial jurisdiction over cases of witchcraft.

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