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DANEAU, LAMBERT (1530-1590). A Calvinist preacher and pastor near the French city of Orléans, Deneau probably became concerned about witchcraft due to a number of witch trials that took place in nearby Paris. In 1564, he wrote a treatise De veneficiis (On Witches) in the popular form of a dialogue. His purpose was to counter the skepticism that still existed regarding many aspects of witchcraft and

the full threat that witches supposedly represented to Christian society. Although influenced primarily by the theology of Jean Calvin, Daneau was a learned scholar and humanist, and he incorporated references to classical Greek and Roman authors, and even medieval canon law, freely into his dialogue. The work proved very popular and was subsequently translated into both English and German.

DEE, JOHN (1527-1608). The most renowned learned magician in Elizabethan England, Dee was a brilliant scholar and pursued studies in astronomy, astrology, alchemy, mathematics, and Hermetic magic. He traveled extensively throughout Europe in pursuit of occult learning, was accused of sorcery and black magic under Queen Mary of England, and often performed astrological readings for Queen Elizabeth. Despite the charges of sorcery brought against him, which were politically motivated and of which he was acquitted, he had relatively little to do with witchcraft during his long life.

Born in London into the family of a minor official in the court of King Henry VIII, Dee entered St. John's College in Cambridge when he was only 15, and devoted the rest of his life to learning. Magic, astrology, and alchemy fascinated him, but he found little serious study of these subjects at Cambridge and so went to the continent. Returning to England, he performed astrological services for Queen Mary and also for her half-sister Elizabeth, whom Mary had imprisoned for political reasons. Dee therefore found himself imprisoned and charged with performing sorcery. These charges were dismissed, however, and when Mary died and Elizabeth ascended to the throne Dee often performed astrological readings for her.

Perhaps most important for the history of witchcraft in England, Dee's contacts with magicians and demonologists across Europe, and the many books he brought back with him to England, facilitated the spread of continental demonology to England. Nevertheless, these ideas never gained as firm a hold, even among learned elites, in England as elsewhere in Europe. This was one important reason why concerns over diabolical witchcraft and witch-hunting were never as severe in England as in other regions of Europe.

DEL RIO, MARTIN (1551-1608). A famous Jesuit scholar, Del Rio authored the Disquisitiones magicarum (Disquisitions on Magic), first published beginning in 1599 and going through numerous editions throughout the next century. This work became probably the most important and most cited treatise on magic and witchcraft in the 17 th century.

Del Rio was born into a distinguished Spanish family in Antwerp (then part of the Spanish Netherlands). He was an intellectual prodigy and had published an edition and commentary of the tragedies of Seneca by the time he was 19. At 24, he was appointed Attorney General for the region of Brabant. In 1580, however, he chose to enter the Jesuit order, after which he studied and taught at numerous Jesuit centers around Europe. It was in Louvain that he composed his Disquisitiones. This wide-ranging work began with a discussion of magic in general before focusing on demonic magic and witchcraft. Del Rio also included a discussion of harmful sorcery, or maleficium, and a section of instructions to judges on how they should handle cases of witchcraft, as well as discussing subjects such as prophecy, fortune telling and divination, and the role of priestly confessors in dealing with these activities. In many ways the most comprehensive learned treatise on witchcraft in the early-modern period, the Disquisitiones was also extremely popular, surpassing such works as the Malleus maleficarum and Nicholas Remy's Daemonolatreiae.

DEMONOLOGY. Referring to the scholarly study of demons and the devil, demonology has always existed in Christianity as a counterpart to theology, the study of God. As early as the second century c.e., Christian monks in the deserts of Egypt were writing about the nature of demons, which they thought were assailing them constantly. The early church fathers were also demonologists, and the great Augustine of Hippo wrote extensively about the nature of demons in some of his major works, including De divinatione daemonum (On the Divination of Demons), and sections of The City of God. After late antiquity, few major works were written about demons until about the 12th century when the study of demons began to revive as part of the general revitalization of education and intellectual life in Europe known as the "Renaissance of the 12th Century." In the 13 th century, the important medieval theologian Thomas Aquinas discussed the nature and powers of demons in several of his works.

Throughout the period of major witch-hunting in Europe, from the 15th to the 17th centuries, witches were believed to have entered into pacts with the devil and to work their harmful sorcery, or mal-eficium, through the power of demons. Thus virtually every treatise on witchcraft was really a treatise on demonology, or at least contained large sections of demonological material. The knowledge, or supposed knowledge, about the nature, variety, and number of demons was refined as never before. As fallen angels, the demons were thought to retain their rank respective to one another based on the order of angels in heaven (in descending order: seraphim, cherubim, thrones, dominions, principalities, powers, virtues, archangels, and angels). Lucifer, the devil, was the prince of all demons. Chief demons under him included Asmodeus, Astaroth, Baal, Beelzebub, Belial, and Leviathan. These demons were derived principally from the Bible and had generally been pagan deities worshiped by tribes and nations encountered by the ancient Israelites. Christian authorities considered all such pagan gods to be demons.

Demonologists spent a great deal of effort calculating the number of demons, which was known from the Bible to be "legion." In the 15th century, Alfonso de Spina estimated that one third of all the angels in heaven had sided with Lucifer when he fell, and by various calculations he determined this number to be 133,306,668 demons. Other figures were based on the association of the number six with the devil. In the 16 th century, one authority determined that there were 66 princes in hell commanding 6,660,000 demons. Johann Weyer, who was actually skeptical about many aspects of witchcraft, calculated that there were 1,111 legions in hell, each with 6,666 demons, for a total of 7,405,926 demons commanded by 72 princes.

DEMONS. As evil spirits that could be commanded by humans, demons were essential to witchcraft as conceived in Christian Europe in the medieval and early-modern periods, since it was through the agency of demons that witches were believed to perform their harmful sorcery, or maleficium. In exchange for the ability to command demons, witches were thought to have offered worship to the demons or to the devil himself. Witches thus became agents of pure evil in their own right, and most Christian authorities, both ecclesiastical and secular, believed they posed a dire threat to society and

needed to be eradicated at all costs. The demonic and ultimately diabolical nature of the evil entailed in witchcraft necessitated and justified the extreme measures used in witch-hunting.

Most, if not all, pre-modern human cultures have believed in the existence of powerful spirits that could be controlled by human beings for magical purposes. In ancient Greece, such creatures were known as daimones. These creatures were not necessarily evil, however, but might have good, evil, or even ambivalent intentions toward human beings. Ancient Judaism also had a complex system of de-monology that distinguished between good and evil spirits, and this system continued to inform Jewish Kabbalah throughout the medieval and early-modern periods. As Christianity developed, however, demonology developed into a far more rigid system, based largely on the more fully articulated Christian conception of the devil as the one great opponent of God and source of all evil in the world. All demons became associated with the fallen angels who rebelled with Satan and were cast out of heaven. Christian demons, therefore, were entirely evil, and humans who became involved with them in any way were believed to be evil as well.

In the early fifth century, the great church father Augustine of Hippo defined the essential nature of the world as being one of conflict between the forces of good, represented by the Christian church, and the forces of evil, led by Satan and his demons. He defined the notion of the demonic pact that magicians were believed to make with the demons they sought to control. Seeking to corrupt humans, these demons offered their services only in exchange for worship. Augustine's basic notion of demonic power and the demonic pact underlying much magical activity remained in force for the remainder of the Middle Ages and into the early-modern period.

DEVIL. In Christian cosmology, the devil represents the supreme force of evil in the universe. The concept of the devil actually developed as a composite of several figures from the Hebrew Bible, including the serpent that tempted Eve in the Garden of Eden, Lucifer, the rebellious angel who was cast out of heaven, and Satan, who appears in the Book of Job. The Greek diabolos, meaning tempter or deceiver, is a translation of the Hebrew Satan. In ancient Judaism, none of these figures represented a supreme force of evil, however. Only in

the Christian New Testament does the devil begin to appear as the principal opponent of God and humankind, especially in the Book of Revelation, where the renewed war between God and the devil at the end of time is described. Eventually, Christian authorities became convinced that witches, whom they had long believed performed their harmful sorcery through the agency of demons, worshiped the devil, who would preside over the witches' sabbath. Believing that witches had sold their souls to the devil and become his servants in the world allowed Christian authorities, both ecclesiastical and secular, to justify the extreme measures taken against witches.

Although it is entirely probable that at least some people accused of witchcraft during the period of the witch-hunts did in fact practice some form of sorcery, and a few of these people may even have worshiped the devil and believed that they gained power from him, there is no evidence that any large cults of devil-worshiping sorcerers ever really existed in Europe. Likewise, some people continue to accuse practitioners of modern witchcraft, or Wicca, of worshiping the devil. Modern witches are in fact neo-pagans who do not adhere to any elements of Christian belief. Even groups that practice modern Satanism do not really worship the devil in the Christian sense.

DEVIL'S MARK. During the period of the witch-hunts, many authorities believed that the devil marked all witches as a sign of their service to him. This mark could take many forms, and in practice once a person became suspected of witchcraft almost any blemish, scar, or bodily mark might serve as evidence. Witches were routinely searched for such marks when they were arrested and brought to trial, through a procedure known as pricking. The devil's mark should not be confused with the witch's mark, which was believed to be the spot on the flesh where witches would suckle their demonic familiars.

DIABOLISM. Witchcraft as conceived in the Christian, European context during most of the medieval and early-modern periods, and certainly during the age of the most intense witch-hunting during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, was comprised of two essential elements: the practice of harmful sorcery, or maleficium, and a range of activities that focused on the supposed worship of the devil and supplication of demons entailed in the performance of that sorcery.

These latter elements are often referred to collectively in modern scholarship as diabolism.

Essential to the diabolical aspect of witchcraft was the basic belief, firmly held by most Christian authorities at least since the time of the great church father Augustine in the fifth century, that most if not all forms of sorcery relied on demonic agency, and that this entailed a heretical pact made between the demon and the human sorcerer. The sorcerer would offer or promise to offer the demon certain signs of worship in exchange for which the demon would perform certain acts. Although notions of demonic pacts are rooted in early Christianity, however, the linkage of this concept to the performance of acts of maleficium was slow to develop. Even in the late 14th century, the inquisitor Nicolau Eymeric had to prove that demonic sorcery necessarily entailed idolatry and the worship of demons. Thereafter, however, the full range of diabolism evident in later witchcraft quickly developed, and by the early 15 th century the stereotype was already fairly complete.

Witches, in addition to simply entering into pacts with certain demons or offering them worship in exchange for magical power, were believed to have entered into complete apostasy from the true faith and to have surrendered their souls to the devil himself. They were members of an organized, conspiratorial, satanic cult, and gathered regularly at secret, nocturnal gatherings known as witches' sabbaths, where they would worship the devil, desecrate the cross, Eucharist, and other holy objects, and perform other abominable acts, such as killing and cannibalizing babies and small children, and engaging in sexual orgies with each other, with various demons, and with the devil.

DIANA, GODDESS. A pagan goddess of the moon and the hunt, Diana is the Roman incarnation of the Greek Artemis. As a lunar goddess, she was associated even in ancient times with secret, nocturnal activities. Particularly as part of a trio of lunar goddesses including Selene and Hecate, Diana was sometimes associated with dark magic and witchcraft.

As Europe became Christian, Diana, as with all pagan gods and goddesses, came to be regarded as a demon, at least by ecclesiastical authorities. In the early Middle Ages, a belief developed that Diana

40 • DIVINATION

led large groups of women on nocturnal journeys through the night sky. This belief seems based not in any element of traditional mythology surrounding Diana, however, but on the Germanic notion of the Wild Hunt, a band of ghosts or spirits who would haunt the countryside at night, destroying and killing as they went. The leader of the hunt was most commonly a female spirit named Berta or Holda, but was typically translated as Diana (also sometimes Herodias) by ecclesiastical authorities when they wrote in Latin. The most famous image of Diana leading a group of women on a nocturnal flight is contained in the 10th century canon Episcopi, and such ideas clearly influenced the later development of ideas of night flight and the witches' sabbath.

In modern witchcraft, or Wicca, Diana remains an important figure. Early in the 20th century, Margaret Murray used the long association of Diana with witchcraft to claim, without any real evidence, that historical witchcraft was in fact a direct survival of ancient paganism long into the Christian era. Most Wiccans today recognize that Murray's theories are groundless and maintain that Wicca is, at most, a creative revival of certain pre-Christian religious beliefs, and in no way a direct surviving remnant of such religions. However, they still revere Diana as an important pagan goddess. As a lunar deity, she continues to be associated with magic; as a virgin goddess and goddess of the hunt, she is an archetype for the strong feminist and naturalist elements in modern witchcraft.

DIVINATION. Referring to the practice of revealing hidden knowledge or foretelling the future by magical means, divination is one of the most common forms of sorcery around the world and throughout human history. The English word sorcery in fact derives from the Latin sortilegium, meaning fortune telling or divination, specifically by casting lots. This became the French sorcellerie, which meant both sorcery and, eventually, demonic witchcraft. In the ancient world, although the practice of divination was widespread, diviners were often viewed with suspicion, either because they were thought to be charlatans, or, if genuine, because they were thought to traffic with evil forces. The marginal status of divination in the ancient world is well illustrated in the biblical story of King Saul, who expelled sorcerers and diviners from his kingdom, but then felt com-

EASTERN EUROPE, WITCHCRAFT IN • 41

pelled to consult the Witch of Endor (actually a seer rather than a maleficent witch) before a crucial battle with the Philistines.

For Christian authorities in medieval and early-modern Europe, divination was a crime because, like many other forms of magic, it was thought to involve the invocation of demons. In addition, attempting to foretell the future was seen as an affront against the power of God, who alone could know such things. Nevertheless, divination remained common and was widely practiced by professional cunning men and women across Europe. Such people were often viewed with suspicion by authorities and could become targets for accusations of witchcraft. However, in most cases the penalties for simple divination were not as severe as for actual harmful sorcery, or maleficium. The practice of divination, of course, extends long after the main period of witch-hunting ended in Europe, and even today the wide array of horoscopes, tarot readings, and other means of divination attest to the continued practice of what might be the most common and enduring form of magical activity in history.

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