The Church Growth Kit

Ministry Letters

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Formation of the Church

In the novel, Valentine Michael Smith is an Earthman born on Mars and raised by Martians. He eventually returns to Earth, where he finds that his upbringing renders him literally a stranger in a strange land. Smith forms the Church of All Worlds, organized in nests. The church teaches grokking, or the intuiting of the fullness of all things and beings, and joyful, coequal love between the sexes. God is immanent in all things church mem From Atl, Zell founded CAW, and it evolved under his leadership. The church filed for incorporation in 1967 and was formally chartered on March 4, 1968, making it the first of the Pagan earth religions in the United States to obtain full federal recognition as a church. Zell coined the term Neo-Pagan to apply to the emerging, ecology-conscious Earth religions of the 1960s. CAW initially was refused recognition as a church by the state of Missouri because of its lack of dogma concerning God, the hereafter, the fate of souls, heaven and hell, and sin and...

The seven reasons why some are not rid of the divell with all their popish conjurations why there were no conjurors in

THE reason why some are not remedied for all their conjurations, the papists say is for seven causes. First, for that the faith of the standers by is naught secondlie, for that theirs that present the partie is no better thirdlie, bicause of the sinnes of the bewitched fourthlie, for the neglecting of meete remedies fiftlie, for the reverence of vertues going out into others sixtlie, for the purgation seventhlie, for the merit of the partie bewitched. And lo, the first foure are proved by Matthew the 7. and Marke the 4. when one presented his sonne, and the multitude wanted faith, & the father said, Lord help mine incredulitie or unbeleefe. Wherupon was said, Oh faithlesse and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you And where these words are written And Jesus rebuked him, &c. That is to saie, saie they, the possessed or bewitched for his sinnes. For by the neglect of due remedies it appeereth, that there were not with Christ good and perfect men for the pillers of the faith...

Lessons read in all churches where the pope hath authoritie on S Margarets daie translated into Enghsh word for word

Grant therefore O father, that whosoever writeth, readeth, or heareth my passion, or maketh memoriall of me, may deserve pardon for all his sinnes whosoever calleth on me, being at the point of death, deliver him out of the hands of his adversaries. And I also require, O Lord, that whosoever shall build a church in the honor of me, or ministreth unto me anie candles of his just labour, let him obteine whatsoever he asketh for his health. Deliver all women in travell that call upon me, from the danger thereof.

The Processchurch Of The Final Judgement

In the early 1960s, two members of the Church of Scientology, Robert and Mary Anne de Gnmston Moore, who had been working as therapists left to set up -m business for themselves to develop the techniques used by the Scientologists even further. They called their approach 'Compulsions Analysis' and claimed that it enabled individuals to realize their full potential. Their technique was named a 'Process'-, after the Scientology technique. Soon their success enabled them to rent premises in Mayfair. Their group therapy sessions produced strong bonds between themselves and their clients to the point where they realized they had created a new religion, which was ultimately to be called The Process-Church of the Final Judgement. About 30 of them left London to found the ideal community and after some years spent wandering from place to place, including a period of proselytization in London and similar trips in the USA, they setded in eastern North America They had by then had some contact...

Church and School of Wicca

Church and School of Wicca Religious and educational institutions founded by GAVIN AND Yvonne Frost, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Church of Wicca, founded in 1968, is the oldest recognized church of Witchcraft in the United States, achieving federal recognition in 1972. Its teaching arm is the School of Wicca, which offers correspondence courses. History. The Frosts, who were living in St. Louis, Missouri, developed correspondence courses out of their interest and involvement in Witchcraft and began advertising the courses as the School of Wicca. They followed with the founding of the church in 1968. Working with lawyers, Gavin Frost was able to win a Letter of Determination from the Internal Revenue Service giving religious recognition to Wicca and Witchcraft. The ruling, which came in 1972, made the church the first Wiccan church to achieve this federal recognition, and the first to use Wicca to describe the religion of Witchcraft. The same year, the Frosts began to work...

The Curse On The Catholic Church

For centuries the Catholic Church has wielded fantastic power, both temporal and spiritual. Its infamous Holy Inquisition equals in terror, bloodshed and sadism that of Hitler's Nazi Germany. Though not a practicing Catholic, Hitler was nevertheless baptised into the Catholic religion. He has never been excommunicated. Yet Catholics whose only offense was marrying outside their religion or perhaps attacking some of the Papal encyclicals have been. If this seems inconsistent it's not. Both the Catholic Church and Nazi Germany committed mass murders. They brooked no opposition. Opponents and heretics were burned at the stake or in modern ovens. Both demanded complete obedience and faith . There are many documented cases of those who were accused of heresy, witchcraft and communion with the devil who died in defiance. As the flames consumed their bodies they cursed the Pope, the Catholic Church, its Cardinals, and the Inquisitors. The Gypsies, the Moors The Jews, and all those Catholics...

The Gnostic Church

The Gnostic Church is the authentic Church of our Lord the Christ. It is the temple of Initiations and it is situated within the Astral plane. Our Lord the Christ and the Holy Masters officiate there. On Fridays and Sundays, the disciple can assist the 'Pretor' in order to receive the Holy Unction of bread and wine and in order to be cured of any sickness. This Church has 11,000 vestals. The twenty and four Elders of the Apocalypse (Revelation) dwell there. This Church has esoteric instruction rooms for the disciples, in which the Masters teach and instruct. The Masters of the Holy Gnostic Church concur to the bed of the sick in order to heal them. A Gnostic Prayer exists, which every sick person must pronounce in order to ask the Masters for help. Behold, the prayer

The Church Of Satan

The Church of Satan was founded m California in 1966 by Anton Szandor LaVey, a colourful figure of considerable personal magnetism, with a varied and unusual life already behind him. He had earned his living from music as a teenager, then worked in a circus as a lion tamer, calliope player, fortuneteller and hypnotist, was once employed as photographer m a police crime-laboratory and in an insurance company, and had been an organist and a clinical hypnotist. He was widely read in magic and the occult, on which he gave public lectures. His published rituals are in a variety of languages including Hnochian. This is a magical language attributed to the magician John Dee, translated by the Order of the Golden Dawn and believed to be older than Sanskrit and possibly to denve from Ancient Egypt. LaVey's taste m music, at least as far as his choice of music for ritual is i concerned, seems to be very different from the heavy-metal rock music associated in the popular imagination with...

Volume One The Original Introduction

Those who join the Reformed Druids are, in one sense or another, religious rebels. They are usually fed up with the hypocrisies and inadequacies of the institutionalized churches. They seek a sa-tyric outlet, and they find it in Druidism. But they are seldom anti-religious. On the contrary, they often feel that there is in fact some truth to be found in religion, and this belief is affirmed in the Basic Tenets. A common complaint among Druids is that the truth has been obscured because they have been forced, more or less against their will, into various particular religious molds. They seek to be freed freed in order to freely seek, and to make independent judgments on what passes for religious truth.

Christianity slowly takes over

As Christianity (a religion founded by Jesus of Nazareth, also called the Christ) became the prevalent religion in Europe, ancient traditions were increasingly pushed toward the fringes of society. At the beginning of the transition period, however, there was minimal conflict between Christians and those who continued traditional practices. In fact, traditional practices were often combined with Christian rituals (religious ceremonies). The first converts to Christianity were people who belonged to the upper classes and the nobility. Thus being a Christian became a sign of high social and political status. Peasants and members of the lower class, known as pagans (from the ancient Latin word for peasant or country dweller), were generally left to practice their versions of the old religion as long as they posed no threat to the church and ruling class. Over time non-Christian beliefs came to be called paganism by the Christians. Although Christians built churches directly on top of...

Certaine conjurations taken out of the pontificall and out of the missall

The darke corners of this church and altar. You shall find in the same title, these words following, to be used at the hallowing of the churches. There must a crosse of ashes be made upon the pavement, from one end of the church to the other, one handfull broad and one of the priests must write on the one side thereof the Greeke alphabet, and on the otherside the Latin alphabet, Durandus yeeldeth this reason thereof to wit, It representeth the union in faith of the Jewes and Gentiles. And yet well agreeing to himselfe he saith even there, that the crosse reaching from the one end to the other, signifieth that the people, which were in the head, shalbe made the taile.

Witchcraft And The Early Christians

After the formation of the Christian church, the worship of the old deities and the old ways were banned and the nature festivals supplanted by Christian ones. The Christians were pragmatic, however, and Pope Gregory, who sent St Augustine to England in AD 597, acknowledged that it was simpler to graft the Christian festivals on to the existing festivals of the solstices and equinoxes. So, Easter, for example, was celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the spring equinox, which is where it remains today. In the same way, the crosses on the hot cross buns that we eat on Good Friday were originally the ancient astrological signs for the Earth, and were eaten to absorb the power and fertility of Mother Earth. Hot cross buns were still thought to retain their magical qualities until the early decades of the nineteenth century and were said to offer protection against drowning. For this reason, hot cross buns were hung from the roofs of coastal churches where their...

Lughnassadh The Festival Of The Corn Harvest

This is the festival of the corn harvest, called Lammas or Loafmass, when on 1 August the first loaf is baked from the harvested wheat. It corresponds to the Christian harvest festival when in some churches corn is still offered on the altar, but the concept of offering up the first fruits to the deities in return for abundance throughout the year is a very ancient one.

The Festival Of Imbolc

In churches, the candles that were to be used for the coming year in ceremony were purified on the feast of Candlemas on 1 February. Each person was given a blessed candle that acted as protector of the home against storms, fire and flood and defended cattle and crops against evil.

Madonna Diana

When Rorasa awoke in the morning, she found her self in another house, where all was far more magnificent, and having risen, a beautiful maid led her into another room, where she was dressed in a superb wedding-garment of white silk with diamonds, for it was her wedding-dress indeed. Then there appeared ten young ladies, all splendidly attired, and with them and many distinguished persons she went to the church in a carriage. And all the streets were filled with music and people bearing flowers. Therefore the priest put these images into the church, which is the most ancient in Cettardo, and now in many churches you may see the Madonna and the Moon, but it is Diana-la Dea della Luna. The name Rorasa seems to indicate the Latin ros the dew, rorare, to bedew, rorulenta, bedewed-in fact, the goddess of the dew. Her great fall and being lifted by Diana suggest the fall of dew by night, and its rising in vapour under the influence of the moon. It is possible that this is a very old Latin...

Reverend Green starts healing process

When Samuel Parris was forced to resign as the minister of Salem Village church and leave town in 1697 (see biography entry and box on p. 71), he was replaced by Joseph Green. More sophisticated and accepting than his predecessor, Green immediately tried to heal the community. He preached forgiveness in his sermons and even changed the seating arrangement in the church, forcing former enemies to acknowledge one another. He also brought justice to victims who had been ignored by the courts. In 1703 Green formally reversed Martha Corey's excommunication (forced removal) from the church (see Chapter 4), thereby restoring her reputation and assuring the relatives of other executed people that their loved ones would not be damned to hell (according to the Christian concept of eternal punishment for sins after death). In 1712 he revoked the excommunications of Rebecca Nurse and Giles Corey (see Chapter 4). Although Green's efforts helped the community eventually recover from the devastation...

Early Organization and Beliefs

Like Heinlein's fictional church, the early CAW was organized around nests. The church had nine circles of advancement, each named after a planet. One advanced by fulfilling reading and writing requirements and participating in psychic training systems such as a martial arts discipline. The process was intended to be continuous. The basic dogma of the CAW was that there was no dogma the basic belief was the lack of belief. The only sin was hypocrisy, and the only crime in the eyes of the church was interfering with another. The unofficial goal of CAW was to achieve union with all consciousness. Religion means relinking. It should be about connecting one with everything else, integrating the individual into the greater scheme of things, the life flow, the universe, the cosmic vision. The connectedness of each individual with the whole of everything is in essence the religious quest, and this is what a religion should be about. This is what the Church of All Worlds is about.

Lecture Eight Mysticism in Early Modern Europe

Scope Lecture Eight concludes our examination of mysticism. It focuses on the nature of mysticism in early modern Europe and its evolution as a response to the dual impact of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. The lecture also examines case studies of the two greatest Spanish mystics of the sixteenth century, Saint Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross, and explores the relationship between their mystical writings and the imperial policies of Spain. The lecture concludes with a summation of what mysticism meant for European society and for the Christian Church in a period of rapid upheavals.

Lecture Eleven The Birth of the Inquisition

Scope In Lecture Eleven, we study the birth of the Inquisition in the 1220s as a response to the spread of Catharism in late twelfth-century Languedoc. The lecture analyzes the meaning of the Inquisition in medieval culture and the historiographical debate on whether inquisitorial practices marked a significant shift in the treatment of heretics, Jews, women, and lepers. The lecture looks at the arguments for the emergence of exclusionary discourses and the creation of otherness. The lecture concludes with a brief examination of the heresy of the Free Spirit, its implications for lay piety, new forms of sexuality, and the growing intolerance of the Church and Christian people in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries.

Functions of the Circle

Sanctity - from a spiritual standpoint, the circle is a portable church, where we can set aside mundane concerns and focus on the sacred. It is where we hold celebrations, rites of passage, and communion with Deity. Being able to hold church anywhere through casting circle helps us remember that the temple is the world, as well as inside us we discover the sacredness of all space.

Parris and the Salem trials

During the trials Parris aggravated tensions in the village by persecuting his parishioners and delivering sermons that encouraged anti-witch hysteria. In an especially damaging gesture, he excommunicated (expelled from church membership) accused witches Martha Corey and Rebecca Nurse, prominent members of the community who were eventually hanged (see Chapter 4 and primary source entry). When the elderly Nurse was in jail Parris gave a fiery sermon, Christ Knows How Many Devils There Are, which contributed to the evidence against her. He also harassed relatives of accused witches. Parris's notes from that period show that he hounded Nurse's husband Sam to attend church when they missed even a single sermon. In the case of the Nurses, Parris clearly had political motivations Nurse's maiden name was Towne, thus placing her in the anti-Putnam and anti-Parris camp, although there is no evidence that she was ever directly involved in the conflict surrounding Parris's appointment.

Curious Beliefs About Witches

Probably it was the Church's influence which caused the most curious stories to be circulated about witches, and possibly the one which was most successful in causing fear and hatred of the craft was the story that they made wax images, and stuck pins in them, to kill the original. It is curious that the Church does not seem to have objected to this type of murder if it was practised by priests or laymen. Only the witch was signalled out for abuse, Why The reason seems clear to me. The Church knew very well that priests' magic at best was a hit or miss affair, but witches' magic worked, and so might be dangerous.

Interview Three Witches

Just as there are no two people who are exactly alike, even identical twins having different fingerprints and handwriting, there are no two witches who are exactly alike. Just as there are thousands of different sects that call themselves Christian, yet who are in violent opposition to each other just as there are a myriad of varying viewpoints within the Catholic Church itself, ranging all the way from the Liberal to the Conservative to the Radical just as there are millions in the world who proclaim themselves Moslems or Buddhists or Jews, within each religion, there are countless offshoots, schisms, deviations, splits and sects. To call someone an American or Christian or Jew or Negro or Witch tells us absolutely nothing about that person. It is a collective identification that denies the identity and individuality of the person.

Bishops fate is sealed

Finally, Bishop's own husband testified against her in court, claiming he had witnessed her acts of witchcraft for many years as well as noting her absence from church each Sunday. (To miss attending church services on Sunday, the Christian day of worship, was punishable in some communities.) During her trial no evidence in her favor was allowed into the court. While she was being held in jail Bishop apparently spoke with Mary Warren, another accused witch, who believed that the teenage girls were making things up about her. Bishop

The last days of the Salem hysteria

Another significant change occurred in October 1692 the English government granted Massachusetts a new charter that gave jury power to all males in the community. Formerly only church members had the right to sit on a jury, thus ensuring that the opinions and beliefs of the church would determine the fate of the accused. Now that juries would be drawn from the general public, who tended to be more aware of social problems than the Puritan elite, the accused stood a better chance of not being put to death. As an extension of this new provision, on November 25 a superior court was created to hear cases. The court did not have its first hearing, however, until a full year later. In the meantime jails were being packed to full capacity as accusations of witchcraft continued to circulate throughout the colony. The general court finally decided to issue an emergency plan to deal with people who were languishing in jail cells. On December 16 the court passed a special act to allow trials for...

Presides at Salem trials

Under the new charter, church membership could no longer be a requirement for voting, although Congregationalism (a branch of Puritanism organized according to independent church congregations) remained the official church. Sewall was named a councilor (advisor) in the new royal government, a position he held until 1725, when he decided not to seek reelection. Historians note that the loss of the original charter led to widespread anxiety in Massachusetts, resulting in witchcraft hysteria. Puritan officials believed the colony was under an evil spell cast by witches (people, usually women, with supernatural powers) who had signed a compact (agreement) with the devil (the ultimate evil force). Witches were supposedly seeking revenge on particular members of the community. According to the Puritans, the compact empowered a witch to perform such acts as causing the death of a child, making crops fail, preventing cream from being churned into butter, or...

Chapter Family Tradition Neogothic and Immigrant Tradition Witches

Tempting though this theory might be to those who long for Pagan survivals, it ignores the important fact that many Inquisitors chose rich or well-off victims precisely because they had wealth, which would then be split between the Church and the local secular authorities. One note of true irony is that the creation of Gothic Witchcraft by the Church did manage to produce actual Satanic groups not among the peasantry, but at the Court of Louis XIV, King of France. Members of the highest ranks of the nobility, trying to relieve their royal boredom, reportedly engaged in hideous crimes and asinine theatrics, holding Black Masses and slaughtering infants just as the Church had told them Even today, however, there are Neogothic Witches modern Satanists who are trying their very best to be everything the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches said (and say) they should be. Fortunately, only a few crazies go so far as to perform human sacrifice like they are supposed to. Though they...

That popish priests leave nothing unconjured aforme of exorcisme for incense

ALTHOUGH the papists have manie conjurations, so as neither water, nor fier, nor bread, nor wine, nor wax, nor tallowe, nor church, nor churchyard, nor altar, nor altar cloath, nor ashes, nor coles, nor belles, nor bell ropes, nor copes, nor vestments, nor oile, nor salt, nor candle, nor candle-sticke, nor beds, nor bedstaves, &c are without their forme of conjuration yet I will for brevitie let all passe, and end here with incense, which they doo conjure in this sort +.

From The Wonders of the Invisible World

The New-Englanders are a people of God settled in those, which were once the Devil's territories and it may easily be supposed that the Devil was exceedingly disturbed, when he perceived such a people here accomplishing the promise of old made unto our blessed Jesus, That He should have the utmost parts of the earth for his possession. There was not a greater uproar among Ephesians, when the Gospel was first brought among them, than there was among the powers of the air (after whom those Ephesians walked) when first the silver trumpets of the Gospel here made the joyful sound. The Devil thus irritated immediately tried all sorts of methods to overturn this poor plantation and so much of the church, as was fled into this wilderness, immediately found the serpent cast out of his mouth a flood for the carrying of it away. I believe that never were more satan-ical devices used for the unsettling of any people under the sun, than what have been employed for the extirpation of the vine...

What happened next

The Mathers, Sewall had not been one of the main promoters of the trials yet he had cooperated with those in power by sentencing and executing the accused witches. Sewall was so remorseful that he wrote an admission of error and guilt. Then on January 14, the day of atonement, he stood in front of the congregation in the Old South Church at Boston as the Reverend Samuel Willard read Sewall's statement aloud.

Develops a social conscience

By 1697 Massachusetts officials realized that the trials had been a terrible mistake, so the legislature designated January 14 as a special day of atonement (expression of regret and request for forgiveness). Taking this opportunity to make a public confession of his sins, Sewall wrote an admission of error and guilt. Then he stood and faced the congregation in the Old South Church at Boston as the Reverend Samuel

Judges and accusers show minimal guilt

The most emotional plea for forgiveness came from Samuel Sewall (see biography and primary source entries), one of the magistrates (judges). He went a step further than the jurors by Taking the blame and shame of it and asking God to forgive him for his role in the trials. As related in A Delusion of Satan, as Sewall stood in front of the congregation of Old South Church in Boston, Massachusetts, his apology was read aloud by Reverend Samuel Willard. Sewall begged God to spare In the wake of the trials Samuel Parris, minister of the Salem Village church, attempted in vain to clear his name and retain his position in the community. As noted in A Delusion of Satan, he pointed to the role that deep social conflicts had played in the trials I beg, entreat, and beseech you Satan, the Devil . . . may no longer be served by us, by our envy and strifes . . . but that all from this day forward may be covered with the mantle of love and may on all hands forgive each other heartily, sincerely...

In the Beginning A Sense of Wonder

Various rituals, recorded (not always correctly), by nervous ecclesiastical and lay note-takers at the witch-trials, consists of words in a language which was, to the organised Fertility Cult, what Old Slavonic is to the Russian Orthodox Church and what Latin, until recently, was to the Church of Rome. In the third place, I shall produce evidence, not so far revealed in any book on Witchcraft, to shew that, whilst Witchcraft was not, after the famous Bull of 1484, as widespread or as powerful as vested ecclesiastical and political interests found it useful to make it out to be, the Old Religion (4) (as I shall often call it in this book) was far more established, far more widespread, until at least the year AD 1400, than the activities of the Inquisition would imply. I shall endeavour to demonstrate that, far from the Black Death's having 'given a boost' to the old Religion (at the expense of the New), the facts rather indicate that the opposite occurred that the freeing of the serfs...

Comments on the Foregoing Texts

Now be it observed, that every leading point which forms the plot or centre of the Vangel, such as that Diana is Queen of the Witches. an associate of Herodias (Aradia) in her relations to sorcery that she bore a child to her brother the Sun (here Lucifer ) that as a moon-goddess she is in some relation to Cain, who dwells as prisoner in the moon, and that the witches of old were people oppressed by feudal lands, the former revenging themselves in every way, and holding orgies to Diana which the Church represented as being the worship of Satan-all of this, I repeat, had been told or written out for me in fragments by Maddalena (not to speak of other authorities), even as it had been chronicled by Horst or Michelet therefore all this is in the present document of minor importance. All of this I expected, but what I did not expect, and what was new to me, was that portion which is given as prose-poetry and which I have rendered in metre or verse. This being traditional, and taken down...

The Witch Cult In Britain

This is a matter which of late years has exercised the ingenuity of a number of writers. These may be roughly divided into three schools. Firstly, those who take the severely rationalist view that witchcraft was a kind of mass hysteria, arising from psychological causes. Secondly, those who maintain that witchcraft is real, and that it is the worship and service of Satan, in whom its devotees appear to be great believers. This is the attitude taken by that very prolific writer, the late Montague Summers, and his many imitators. Thirdly, that school, headed by anthropologists like Dr. Margaret Murray, which has tried to look at the subject without either superstitious terrors and theological argument on the one hand, or materialistic incredulity on the other. This school of thought maintains that witchcraft is simply the remains of the old pagan religion of Western Europe, dating back to the Stone Age, and that the reason for the Church's persecution of it was that it was a dangerous...

The Forgeries Of The Canon Episcopi And The Malleus Maleficarum

I have previously referred the reader to H. C. Lea's Materials Towards a History of Witchcraft for the full details of this matter however, as that book is not one which is within easy reach of the general reader, and as the matter is of some importance in the story of the persecution of the witch cult, I will give a brief abstract of it here. Lea quotes a large number of relevant documents to show that the earliest teaching of the Church about the witches' Sabbat differed radically from the parade of horrors for which credence was, and is, demanded by orthodox writers. The foundation for this early teaching is a document called the Canon Episcopi, which was accepted as authoritative until the time of the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum in 1486, which finally threw it overboard, after it had been interpreted and re-interpreted until the final sense in which it was taken was almost the opposite of its original sense. Regino (circa A.D. 906) seems to have been the first publisher...

How conjurors have beguiled witches what bookes they carie about to procure credit to their art wicked assertions

THUS you see that conjurors are no small fooles. For whereas witches being poore and needie, go from doore to doore for releefe, have they never so manie todes or cats at home, or never so much hogs doong and charvill about them, or never so manie charmes in store these conjurors (I saie) have gotten them offices in the church of Rome, wherby they have obteined authoritie & great estimation. And further, to adde credit to that art, these conjurors carrie about at this daie, bookes intituled under the names of Adam, Abel, Tobie, & Enoch which Enoch they repute the most divine fellow in such matters. They have also among them bookes that they saie Abraham, Aaron and Salomon made. Item they have bookes of Zacharie, Paule, Honorius, Cyprian, Jerome, Jeremie, Albert, and Thomas also of the angels, Riziel, Razael, and Raphael and these doubtlesse were such bookes as were said to have beene burnt in the lesser Asia Acts. 19. . And for their further credit they boast, that they must be and...

Malleus Maleficarum triggers horrors

As the result of mass production made possible by the printing press, the second-best-selling book in Europe for more than two centuries was the Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches see primary sources entry). This three-part work was the official handbook for detecting, capturing, trying, and executing witches. It was written in 1486 by Austrian priest Heinrich Kramer (also spelled Kraemer 1430-1505) and German priest Jakob Sprenger (c. 1436-1495) at the request of Pope Innocent VIII. An especially frightening impact of the Malleus was that it united the church and the state, making horrific torture perfectly legal as a means of obtaining confessions from accused witches.

Of visions noises apparitions and imagined sounds and of other illusions of wandering soules with a confutation thereof

In all ages moonks and preests have abused and bewitched the world with counterfet visions which proceeded through idlenes, and restraint of marriage, wherby they grew hot and lecherous, and therefore devised such meanes to compasse and obteine their loves. And the simple people being then so superstitious, would never seeme to mistrust, that such holie men would make them cuckholds, but forsooke their beds in that case, and gave roome to the cleargie. Item, little children have beene so scared with their mothers maids, that they could never after endure to be in the darke alone, for feare of bugs. Manie are deceived by glasses through art perspective. Manie hearkening unto false reports, conceive and beleeve that which is nothing so. Manie give credit to that which they read in authors. But how manie stories and bookes are written of walking spirits and soules of men, contrarie to the word of God a reasonable volume cannot conteine. How common an opinion was it among the papists,...

Water and coniuration

And if nothing be found, the partie that is to be exorcised or conjured, must come to the church rath in the morning and the holier the daie is, the better, speciallie our Ladie daie. And the preest, if he be shriven himselfe and in perfect state, shall doo the better therein. And let him that is exorcised hold a holie candle in his hand, &c. Alwaies provided, that the holie water be throwne upon him, and a stoale put about his necke, with Deus in adjutorium, and the Letanie, with invocation of saints. And this order maie continue thrise a weeke, so as (saie they) through multiplication of intercessors, or rather intercessions, grace maie be obteined, and favor procured. There is also some question in the Romish church, whether the sacrament of the altar is to be received before or after the exorcisme. Item in shrift, the confessor must learne whether the partie be not excommunicate, and so for want of absolution, endure this vexation. Thomas sheweth the difference...

Must fulfill family expectations

Was the daughter of John Cotton (1584-1652), an equally esteemed Puritan minister. Such an impressive family background placed considerable pressure on Mather as a young boy. He was expected to become a successful theologian like his father and grandfathers, and he set about fulfilling these high expectations. By the time he was a teenager he had mastered Latin, Greek, and other ancient languages. He had also learned how to deliver formal sermons (religious speeches). When Mather was fifteen he graduated from Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and three years later he earned a master's degree from that institution. In 1685, when he was twenty-two, he was ordained (officially appointed by the church) as his father's colleague in the ministry at the prestigious Second Church in Boston. The following year Mather married Abigail Phillips.

Chapter One The Mermaid Mystery

The people of Zennor had long wondered at the beauty of a richly dressed lady who attended divine service at the church. None knew whence she came, but when she fell in love with Matthew Trewella and lured him away, tongues began to wag. Neither was seen again for many years, until one Sunday morning the sailors on a ship anchored near Pendower Cove were surprised to see a mermaid rising from the water, and recognised her as none other than the mysterious visitor to Zennor Church. She asked the captain to raise his anchor, as it was barring the entrance to her house. Her likeness can be seen to this day carved on a pew-end in Zennor Church.

Questions to Consider

views on the Trinity condemned by the Church. nails his ninety-five theses on the door of a church at Wittenberg. Waldensians A twelfth-century heretical movement that preached absolute poverty. Founded by Peter Waldo (Valdes of Lyons), the Waldensians translated the gospel into the vernacular and became a great threat to the Church. Martin Luther. The great Protestant leader was born in 1483, became a priest in 1507 and a professor at Wittenberg the following year, and broke openly with the Church in 1517. His translation of the Bible into German and his positions on questions of dogma opened a rift in Western European Christianity.

Influenced by parents obsessions

Considerable political power and they were leading a campaign to keep rural Salem Village separate from the more urban Salem Town. Their main strategy was to establish a church that was independent from the Salem congregation. In 1688, after two other ministers had been forced to leave their posts, Thomas Putnam and his relatives pressured the Salem Village congregation to hire Samuel Parris (see biography entry) as the new preacher. They also took the unusual step of giving Parris a high salary and granting him the title to (legal ownership of) the parsonage (minister's home) and surrounding land.

The House of the Wind

It came to pass that the young lady, who was in the habit of lying awake on moonlight nights to hear the nightingales sing, thought she heard her governess in the next room, of which the door was open, rise and go forth on the great balcony. The next night the same thing took place, and rising very softly and unseen, she beheld the lady praying, or at least kneeling in the moonlight, which seemed to her to be very singular conduct, the more so because the lady kneeling uttered words which the younger could not understand, and which certainly formed no part of the Church service. her, was in a greater rage than ever, and, in fine, after much trouble, succeeded in having her again arrested and cast into prison. And then in evil temper indeed she asked her whether she would become a nun to which she replied that it was not possible, because she had left the Catholic Church and become a worshipper of Diana and of the Moon.

The Charm of the Stones Consecrated to Diana

Here we have again the threatening the deity, just as in Eskimo or other Shamanism, which represents the rudest primitive form of conjuring, the spirits are menaced. A trace of this is to be found among rude Roman Catholics. Thus when St. Bruno, some years ago, at a town in the Romagna, did not listen to the prayers of his devotees for rain, they stuck his image in the mud of the river, head downwards. A rain speedily followed, and the saint was restored in honour to his place in the church.

No way out for many victims

Prisoner ( one of us ) being brought into the courtroom. This explanation came too late, however, for the jury had already reversed its decision and declared her guilty. Nurse's astonished friends begged the court for a reprieve (pardon). Phipps granted the reprieve, but then the girls went into another series of fits that convinced him to reverse the decision. Following this new verdict, Nurse was unanimously excommunicated (expelled) from the church, an act that symbolized eternal damnation with no chance at justice in God's court. She was also sentenced to hang.

The Kyteler Case And Its Surroundings Of Sorcery And Heresymichael Scotthe Fourth Earl Of Desmondjames I And The Irish

And the Church. 1 From this it would seem that heresy and unorthodoxy had already made its appearance in the diocese. In 1324 the Kyteler case occurred, one of the participants being burnt at the stake, while other incriminated persons were subsequently followed up, some of whom shared the fate of Petronilla. In 1327 Adam Dubh, of the Leinster tribe of O'Toole, was burnt alive on College Green for denying the doctrines of the Incarnation and the Holy Trinity, as well as for rejecting the authority of the Holy See. 2 In 1335 Pope Benedict XII wrote a letter to King Edward III, in which occurs the following passage It has come to our knowledge that while our venerable brother, Richard, Bishop of Ossory, was visiting his diocese, there appeared in the midst of his catholic people men who were heretics together with their abettors, some of whom asserted that Jesus the sacrament of the Body of Christ than the Catholic Church teaches, saying that the same venerable sacrament is by no means...

Christmas Pagan Holiday

Christmas Pagan

Before the advent of Christianity, and long before the Holy Roman Catholic Church officially sanctioned December 25 th as Christmas (Christ Mass) this was the date celebrating the Winter Solstice, wherein ancients rejoiced in the Birthday of the Sun, when days became longer and the sun's power increased. The sun became deified and personified in such figures of Mithra, Horus, Osiris and Adonis. The Catholic Church selected December 25th to coincide with the pagan holiday of December 25th in an attempt to assimilate non-Christians. The Christian world had no history of its own for hundreds of years, no historical chronology for at least four hundred years. An older Encyclopedia Britannica states Christians count one hundred and thirty-three contrary opinions of different authors concerning the year the Messiah appeared on earth many of them celebrated writers. St. Nicholas St. Nick was reputedly born at Patara, Lycia, Asia Minor, around the fourth century A.D. He became the Christian...

Englands Old Religions

Wicca is commonly called the 'old religion' by its practitioners, a designation that is intended to claim historical ancestry to validate some of its practices. However, this chapter argues that this term does more than retrace or reread a past (religare) and claim to maintain rituals of an ancient Wiccan ancestry (its traditio). 'Old' and 'new' religion are value-laden terms that have links with a political history dating from the time of the Tudor reformations in England, for the term had earlier served both the Church of England and the Catholic traditions of Christianity in the period between the reformations and the nineteenth century. In continental Europe, the various forms of Protestantism that arose in the course of the sixteenth century were seen to offer new experiences of Christianity. Characterised as throwing off the shackles of popery, magic, superstition and monasticism, the reformed Protestant traditions relegated the tropes of Roman Catholicism to the 'dark ages' of...

There have been Witches in all Ages

The unfortunate consequence of the low position of woman in the Middle Ages, when it was against the general tradition of the Church to try and improve her status, or raise it to what it was in pre-Christian times, should be remembered. So the Church fulminated against Haracelsus when he wrote a book in praise of women, calling him a 'woman worshipper'. As Mr. Hughes says 'This meant that many women resented this subjugation, and a secret religion, where woman was important and which made sexual activity a proud mystery instead of a drudgery, was made. This religion also served as a psychological Cave of Adullam for emotional women, repressed women, masculine women, and those suffering from personal disappointment, or from nervous maladjustment which had not been resolved by the local resources of the Church.' At times the Church ignored the witch but when the Papacy became firmly established the priests treated the cult as a hated rival and tried to persecute it out of existence. The...

The Witches and the Mysteries

So when old writers who were initiated say 'all the mysteries were the same', surely they must mean the inner essences were the same. A heathen examining the various Christian sects, Catholic, Roman and Orthodox, Presbyterian, Methodist and Church of England Churches, would say they are at heart all the same. They all worship the Triune God, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.

Malew Street Haunted Isle Of

Frost, Gavin (1930- ) and Yvonne (1931- ) Witches, authors and founders of the Church AND SCHOOL OF WlCCA, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Frosts have steadfastly followed their own path in the Craft, and whenever that took them out of mainstream views, they have weathered much criticism from others in the Wiccan Pagan communities. Though the Frosts are Witches, they do not consider themselves Pagans, because they do not worship nature or named deities. They are Seeing the confusion about Witchcraft and Wicca in the general population in the United States, and reading of negative behaviors being called Witchcraft, they decided they would try to change the popular image of the religion they had espoused. They coauthored a book, The Witch's Bible, but could not find a publisher for it. As an alternative, they organized the material as correspondence courses and advertised the School of Wicca in magazines. The federal recognition of the church followed in 1972. The Frosts married...

Modern Ideas Of Satanism

Secret organisation dedicated to the worship of its head and master, Satan and to working for the overthrow of the Christian Church and Christian civilization. Its rituals of worship are believed to be characterized by all that is most evil and depraved they include human sacrifice, cannibalism and depraved sexual orgies where all the rules of incest and social custom are ignored. Versions of this belief are held by many twentieth-century Christians all over the world, more particularly m the Protestant denominations, and most of all in the fundamentalist and charismatic sects. Some people who do not see themselves as Christian at all may also hold variants of this belief.

Satanism And The Occult

The figure of Satan m romantic literature, particularly in the nineteenth century, has been used to represent the rebellion of the individual against the powerful, whether these are secular monarchs. Church leaders or the impersonal bureaucrats of the state. His fall from Heaven was portrayed as the result of his daring to opppose the all-powerful, rather than m the more orthodox manner as the triumph of good over evil, and he became, by this strange twist, a symbol of human liberty (Russell, 1991). Self-styled satamsts perceive themselves as aligned with this idealistic Satan, as iconoclasts and rebels, fighting to free individuals from the respression imposed by a Christian society. There are two main tenets to their opposition first, they claim that Christianity denies and suppresses the physical nature of human beings, stigmatizing the body and its pleasures as evil. They therefore take the opposite view. Secondly they deny the Christian moral evaluation of self-seeking as wrong,...

The rules and lawes of popish Exorcists and other conjurors all one with a confutation of their whole power how S

Where is such a promise to conjurors or witches, as is made in the Gospell Mark 16.17. to the faithfull where it is written In my name they shall cast out divels, speake with new toongs if they shall drinke any deadlie thing, it shall not hurt them they shall take awaie serpents, they shall laie hands on the sicke, and they shall recover. According to the promise, this grant of miraculous working was performed in the primitive church, for the confirmation of Christs doctrine, and the establishing of the Gospell.

Out of the Land of Egypt

We see the Roman priest in his temple crudely and literally emasculating his followers. Today the father in the Church, the school and the law court is equally destroying the manhood of his sons by means less rough but none the less effective because they are so widespread.'

Bewitchment See blasting curse hex illwishing maleficia spell

Bibliomancy The use of the Bible for divination. The Bible served as an important instrument of magical divination, particularly during medieval and Reformation times in Britain and parts of Europe. It was believed that the Bible, opened at random, would reveal one's fortunes or answer questions. Bibles laid on a child's head would induce sleep. Reading from the Bible to a pregnant woman would give her a safe delivery. Persons accused of wiTCHCRAFT and sORCERY were weighed against the great Bible in the local church. If the accused weighed less than the Bible, she or he was innocent. A method of Bibliomancy to determine guilt in a crime was the key and book method, still used in some rural parts of Britain as late as the 19th century. In that procedure, a key was placed randomly within the pages of the Bible. The names of the suspects were written on small pieces of paper and inserted up the hollow end of the key. When the paper bearing the name of the guilty party was inserted, the...

Satanist and pseudosatanist groups

There are only two long-standing, well-established groups of satamsts and each is largely the creation of one man. The Church of Satan and the Temple of Set were founded 30 and 20 years ago respectively. The founder of the Church of Satan died only m October 1997 and the founder of the Temple of Set is still its leader. Both men have been public figures in California, although they should probably be described as notorious rather than famous for their activities, since their publicity has been, probably intentionally in the case of the Church of Satan, the cause of public scandal. These founders have published a good deal of material from which the observer can learn about the two organizations' ideas and rituals, but there have been no recent estimates of their membership, whether by themselves or observers. Their active membership, however, is probably a good deal smaller than the numbers who buy their magazines or show a short-term interest. Both organizations have an international...

Black Goat See Baphomet

In a Holy Mass, then he surely can effect MAGIC in a mass used for other purposes. Priests who attempted to subvert the Holy Mass for evil purposes, such as cursing a person to death (see curse), were condemned by the Catholic church as early as the 7th century. The mass is said upon a broken and desecrated altar in some ruined or deserted church where owls hoot and mope and bats flit through the crumbling windows, where toads spit their venom upon the sacred stone. The priest must make his way thither late, attended only by an acolyte of impure and evil life. At the first stroke of eleven he begins the liturgy of hell is mumbled backward, the canon said with a mow and a sneer he ends just as midnight tolls. The beginnings of the Black Mass as it is known in modern times date back to the 14th century, when the church was persecuting heretics. Most of the Black Mass cases centered in France. In 1307 the KNIGHTs Templar were accused of conducting blasphemous rites in which they...

Neo Paganism recognized as religion

Witches America

By the 1970s numerous covens and spiritual groups were independently reviving rituals and beliefs based on ancient documents or rein-terpretations of myths. Many Neo-Paganists called themselves Wiccans. In 1975 the Covenant of the Goddess (CoG) was formed to incorporate hundreds of separate Wiccan covens and was officially recognized as a church in the United States. The CoG is the largest Wiccan organization, representing a variety of belief systems and practices. Its acceptance by official organizations such as the Internal Revenue Service helped to integrate Wiccans into mainstream American society. At the end of the twentieth century Wicca was the eighth largest religion in the United States, ranking with Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other established faiths. This fact is not generally known because many Wiccans observe their rituals in small groups, or even in secret, fearing that they will be attacked as Satan worshipers. Although Wicca and witchcraft are often used...

Carmoney Witch See Mary Butters

Mary Butters The Witch

Carpenter was born on January 16, 1954, in Hillsboro, Wisconsin, a farming community in southwestern Wisconsin, not far from his present home at Circle. He was raised on a dairy farm in a Protestant family and spent a great deal of time in childhood outdoors, learning to appreciate nature. A pivotal experience of finding the spiritual dimensions of nature came in high school, when he participated in the Endu Club (Endu was short for Endurance ), a church-sponsored activity for boys featuring outdoors adventures.

Gilber Tgerard Chelmsford Witches

Agnes Waterhouse

The first trial occurred in the summer of 1566, under the rule of Queen Elizabeth, whose Parliament had passed the second of England's three witchcraft acts in 1563. The Act of 1563 tightened penalties for witchcraft, making it a felony to invoke evil spirits for any purpose, regardless of whether or not harm resulted. It provided for mandatory jail sentences but did not provide for the death penalty unless a human being died because of maleficia. Thus, the 1566 Chelmsford trials became the first significant witch trials to be tested under the new law. The outcome of the trials took on further weight because of the prestigious judge and prosecutors John Southcote, a justice of the Queen's Bench Rev. Thomas Cole, a rector of a church near Chelmsford Sir John Fortescue, who later became chancellor of the Exchequer and, most no-

Witch Attacking Postures

Witchcraft Book

In closing I'd like to quote one more statement from America's own Mark Twain in his book Europe And Elsewhere During many ages there were witches. The Bible said so. The Bible commanded that they should not be allowed to live. Therefore the Church, after doing its duty in but a lazy and indolent way for 800 years, gathered up its halters, thumbscrews, and firebrands, and set about its holy work in earnest. She worked hard at it night and day during nine centuries and imprisoned, tortured, hanged and burned whole hordes and armies of witches, and washed the Christian world clean with their foul blood. Then it was discovered that there are no such thing as

Cunningham John See John Fian

Judith Phillips Cunning Woman

Traditionally, cunning men and women came into their craft by heredity, such as James MuRRELL, one of England's most famous cunning men. Others acquired their gifts by supernatural intervention, such as from FAIRIEs or the dead, or from divine intervention. Some, in fact, were revered in earlier times as semi-divine. Their abilities were from their gifts and knowledge, or cunning, as opposed to any particular holy status in the church. The magic they practiced was a home-made amalgam of Christian prayers and rites mixed with pagan material, folk magic and occultism. Folk magical arts were passed along in oral tradition, embroidered, embellished and changed as time passed. Cunning men and women who could read possessed various magical texts, including famous grimoires such as The Greater Key of Solomon (see grimoires) or the Fourth Book of Agrippa. spouse. Court records in England show that not all cunning men and women worked cheaply. Some assessed the aristocracy for hefty 40- and...

Emotional Bondage Spell

If fooling around with candles makes you feel odd, consider this Millions and millions of people, for century after century, spent their most thoughtful moments staring at the tongues of fire from candles and torches and, before that, campfires. And untold millions, attending church ceremonies, were conditioned by flickering candlefire as they made their strongest efforts to contact the supernatural, God. Odd Not a bit. If thought has any force beyond our own small persons, then no greater communication with the thought energies of millions could be approached than through the common human fascination with controlled fire.

Occult And Religious Organizations

The World Council of Churches and the National Council of Churches are the two organizations which seek to unite all Protestant and Independent Denominations together as One, in association with the Roman Catholic Church. From the WCC stemmed the Thought of Higher Criticism, a Theological view which seeks to tear down the Divine Inspiration of the Scriptures. The WCC condones Communism and also seeks to be at peace with any pagan religion. It finances worldwide rebellion with moneys received from American churches. Scientology is the main Christian church which teaches psychic healing and mind-over-matter. The Unity church is the main platform for witches to speak to Christians. The Unity Church is primarily a Philosophy-teaching organization. (The Unity Church in Dallas, Texas had a series of sermons which taught that all walks of life and occupations are in harmony with God. These series ended with an exhibition by one of its members a strip-tease artist who did her act for the...

The Pentacle of Protection

Pentacle Talismans Chamois

On a Tuesday or Saturday midnight, with the moon waxing, cast and purify your regular circle, using an incense of either pure dragon's-blood resin or one compounded of one part church incense, one part lignum aloes, one part powdered alum, and five drops of Cedarwood oil. Then take some of your talisman paper, and from it cut three four-inch squares. Exorcise these with fire and water.

Bowers Roy See Cochrane Robert

Bradley was sometimes called a witch or Wiccan priestess, which she publicly disavowed. She described herself as an occultist and student of ceremonial MAGIC, but not a witch. That is not my path in this life, stated Bradley, who was an ordained priest in the New Catholic Church. I myself am unalterably Christian.

The Art of Fascination

The rituals themselves in this area of magic are ruled by a very different power to Habondia. In fact, we are dealing with her consort, the Horned One, in medieval times claimed by the church to be none other than Satan himself. The attribution is merely scholarly, however, as the Horned One existed long before Christianity came into existence, with its concept of the devil. Whereas Habondia's symbol is the dove, Old Horny's is the goat. To students of symbolism, this attribute should speak for itself. The goat is the age-old representative of lust and debauchery, and Cernunnos himself, for such is his witch name, is frequently represented as possessing the cloven hooves, horns, and erect phallus of his attribute.

The trial of Rebecca Nurse

Samuel Parris

On March 24, 1692, Edward and Jonathan Putnam (uncle and cousin, respectively, of Ann, Jr.) swore out a formal complaint against Nurse and issued a warrant for her arrest on charges of criminal witchcraft against the entire group of girls. When Nurse was taken to the meetinghouse (the term for a Puritan church) for a pretrial hearing, two factions (opposing groups) immediately formed over the issue of her guilt or innocence. Even Hathorne took a remarkably gentle approach in questioning her, even showing some pity. In the meetinghouse Nurse told the crowd that not only had she been lying in bed gravely ill for the past eighty-nine days, she had never harmed anyone in her entire life. When she was accused of murdering several children, she suggested another possibility, as quoted in Rice's Salem Witch Trials I do not know what to think of it. . . . The Devil may appear in any shape. Nurse's response suggested a new theory in the minds of some citizens perhaps the devil was wandering...

The Servants Of Satan

The idea of Satan's servants had been developed earlier m the Church's fight against heretics. It came to be believed that there were regular gatherings to celebrate and worship their diabolic master. What was thought to happen at these gatherings drew on folk beliefs that had been used first against Christians by Romans. These were then used by Christians in their turn against heretics, the Jews, Templars and all others who were considered enemies of the Church. The folklore referred to secret meetings in which demons and Satan himself participated and at which slaughtered babies were consumed in a feast and there were orgies of sex in which all normal restraints, including those prohibiting incest, were abandoned. Variations on the central themes of murder, cannibalism and orgiastic sex took into account particular practices or beliefs with which the accused were associated. Thus the Templars, who were sworn to celibacy, were accused of sodomy, and the Jews, whose food taboos set...

Tituba and the Parris Family

Little is known about Tituba's life aside from her connection to the Parris family, primarily because she was a slave but also because she came from far-away Barbados. It is believed that Parris bought Tituba and her husband John Indian while living in Barbados in the 1670s. He took them to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1680 after his failed business attempts in Barbados convinced him to seek a job as a pastor in New England. Eventually he was hired to start a church in Salem Village. Tituba and John Indian moved to Salem with Parris in 1688 and were immediately considered outsiders in this small, isolated town where owning a slave, particularly a Carib rather than an African, was uncommon. Tituba and John Indian were given the majority of the indoor and outdoor chores of the household. Tituba was also in charge of caring for the children while the Parrises were making social calls in the parish.

Fox fire See jackolantern

Selena Fox

Fox, Selena (1949- ) American Wiccan high priestess, Pagan scholar, ecospiritual minister and ritual artist. Selena Fox is renowned for her leadership role in the international Wiccan-Pagan community and for founding Circle Sanctuary, a legally recognized Wiccan church with a worldwide Pagan ministry. Born October 20, 1949, in Arlington, Virginia, Fox was raised in a fundamentalist Southern Baptist family. As a child, she began having mystical experiences, out-of-body travel and psychic visions. Upon reaching her teens, she pursued her interest in dreams, the psychic and parapsychology and learned how to give psychic readings with Tarot cards. She left the Southern Baptist Church while in high school, citing a number of reasons, including the church's disapproval of dancing and its refusal to allow women to become pastors. In October 1974, Fox conceived the name, logo and central spiritual focus for Circle, also known as Circle Sanctuary. Fox, along with her partner, Jim Alan, and a...

John Stearne Lawshall

Witches Manningtree

Hopkins pleaded innocent but was swum at Mistley Pond by an angry mob. According to some accounts, he drowned, while others say he floated, was condemned and hanged. No record exists of a trial, if there was one. There is a record of his burial at the Mistley Church in 1647, though there is no tombstone (not uncommon for 17th-century graves). One chronicler of the times said that the burial must have been done in the dark of night outside the precincts of the Church, witnessed by no one local. Hopkins' ghost is said to haunt Mistley Pond. An apparition dressed in 17th-century attire is reportedly seen in the vicinity.

Thomas Aquinas Witchcraft

The victim of perhaps the single most famous witchcraft accusation made in Scandinavia, Anna was the wife of the Lutheran minister and famous scholar Absalon Pedersen Beyer. The charges against her arose mainly out of popular opposition to the attempts by Absalon and other Protestant clergy to remove holy images from the churches of Bergen, Sweden, in accordance with Lutheran teachings. Because the clergymen themselves were too highly placed for their efforts to be resisted directly, opposition focused on Anna. She was first acquitted of charges in 1575, but more accusations arose years later. She was tried again and executed in 1590. Her trial later became the basis for a play and then the film by Carl Theodore Dreyer, Day of Wrath. ALEXANDER V, POPE (ca. 1340-1410). Reigning for only a short time from 1409 to 1410, Alexander V, in his first year as pope, sent a letter to the Franciscan inquisitor Pontus Fougeyron in which he announced his concern...

Holly Weather Divination

Examine the tea leaves carefully for any symbols, pictures, letters and or numbers that are made, for each one possesses a divinatory meaning. For instance, if the leaves take on the shape of a heart, this indicates future happiness. If two hearts are seen, this is said to be a sure sign that wedding bells will be ringing for you (or someone close to you) in the near future. News of a marriage proposal or a wedding will be forthcoming should the symbol of a church, a wedding ring, or a bride and groom be seen.

Attacking Martha Corey

Martha Corey (also spelled Cory) was eighty-one years old and the third wife of Giles Corey, a wealthy landowner whose property straddled the line between Salem Village and Salem Town. Though a faithful church member, she was known for being opinionated. She had also created a ripple of controversy early in her adult life by giving birth to an illegitimate mulatto (of mixed racial descent) child. These factors combined against Martha Corey when, on March 19, Edward Putnam, a member of the powerful Putnam family, and Ezekiel Cheever, the court reporter, came to her home and accused her of practicing witchcraft. Prior to their visit Corey's primary accuser, Ann Putnam, Jr, claimed that she had been temporarily blinded and could not describe the clothing Corey was wearing when the old woman had supposedly bewitched her. Edward Putnam and Cheever confronted Corey with evidence that she had afflicted Ann and other girls. Although Corey denied accusations of witchcraft, she tried to...

The Persecution Of Witches

Witchcraft Magazine

Of course, this occurred to some extent before the Burning Times. The difference was that now the Church and State were legalising and even encouraging this persecution. Even faeries became associated with witchcraft. The Bean-Tighe, a faerie housekeeper, popular in the mythology of Ireland and Scotland, was said to reside with the village wise woman and assist her with chores in the worst of the wave of hysteria over witchcraft, if an old women had an immaculate house, it was claimed she had faerie help - and so by implication was consorting with the Devil.

Girls target Tituba and others

Within days they were taken to the village for questioning by magistrates (judges) John Hathorne and Johnathan Corwin. This was a major event in Salem Village. Almost everyone took the day off to witness the court proceedings. The accused were brought through the village in a formal procession before being taken into an overcrowded, makeshift courtroom at a village inn. There was not enough space for everyone, however, as people had come not only from the village but also from the surrounding areas of Tops-field, Ipswich, Beverly, and Salem Town. The size of the audience forced local leaders to find a larger building, so they decided to use the church meetinghouse instead. The officials and the girls were brought in first, then the church filled with people until every space was occupied. The room quieted as the first accused witches were brought to the front to be examined. Good and Osborne both spoke before Tituba and helped set the stage for her testimony. According...

Calling Down the Moon See Drawing Down the Moon

Ancient pagans used candles and lamps in religious observances, a practice which the Roman Christian theologian Tertullian (ca. 200) vehemently protested as the useless lighting of lamps at noonday. By the fourth century, both candles and lamps were part of Christian rituals, but it was not until the latter part of the Middle Ages that candles were placed on church altars. The Catholic Church established the use of consecrated holy candles in rituals of blessings and absolving sins, and in exorcising demons (see exorcism). Medieval farmers used holy candles to protect their livestock from danger and bewitchment. During the Inquisition, inquisitors' handbooks such as the Malleus Maleficarum (1486) prescribed holy candles as among those consecrated objects for preserving oneself from the injury of witches.

Other Satanist Groups

The Black Flame is bought by many satamsts outside the Church of Satan and knits small groups and individuals into a loose network of satamsts. There are said to be differences of oudook and practice among these groups, but most of those referred to in the literature follow the general line established by LaVey. The differences emphasised by the Temple of Set that allegedly set them off from all other groups are organizational and theoretical their practice of magic appears to be similar to those of other satamsts. Gordon Melton lists six satamst groups in the USA of which four were allegedly defunct Harvey lists two in Britain The Order of the Nine Angles and Dark Lily. Many more editors of satamst magazines were listed in The Black Flame and mention was made of small groups establishing themselves in various parts of the world, including Australia and New Zealand. In Norway, anon attacks on churches have been attributed to satamsts certainly one of three persons convicted for...

Heinrich Kramer and Jakob Sprenger

The Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches) was the official handbook for detecting, capturing, torturing, and killing witches (see Chapter 1). It was written in 1486 by Austrian priest Heinrich Kramer (also spelled Kraemer) and German priest Jakob Sprenger, at the request of Pope Innocent VIII, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The document became the second-best-selling book in Europe for over two centuries (the top best-seller was the Bible). As the main justification for the persecution of witches, the authors relied on a brief passage in the Bible, that states Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live (Exodus 22 18). The Malleus Maleficarum was a three-part work that described witchcraft in elaborate detail. The first part acknowledged the existence of witches and condemned them as demons and heretics (those who break the laws of the church). Much power was given to an accuser, regardless of his or her status in the community, and anyone accused of witchcraft was immediately...

Gothic Witches and the Burning Times

IfljS y the eleventh century any remaining Classic Witches who might have been worshipping Pagan deities in the Church's territory had pretty much died out or gone far underground. Most of the Paleopagan cultures of western and central Europe had been destroyed, and pacification programs had been instituted against any remaining objectors. Having slain all available competition outside of the Church, the Christians proceeded to slay each other. The Inquisition was founded and Crusades mounted against heretics (which were much more successful than the Crusades mounted against the Moslems, who had the rude habit of winning). In 1324 Bernard Gui wrote a manual for heretic hunters that strongly influenced later ones. In 1376, Nicholas Eymeric published a popular handbook for inquisitors, which was in use through the end of the 15th century. In 1428, the Church created a six-point definition of a particular heresy in Calais and Arras (France) that was to eventually be used in a new...

Malleus becomes basis for laws

Witch-craft and there is no doubt that god would never permit such a thing to happen. The book became the guide for civil and church law for over two centuries, going through twenty-eight editions between 1486 and 1600. It was accepted by Catholics and Protestants alike as the authority on ridding Europe of satanism and witchcraft, which were now considered inseparable. The Malleus was both the catalyst and fuel for the intense panic and hatred that swept through Europe, resulting in what some have called genocide, the planned and systematic extermination of an entire group of people.

Mesopagan Witchcraft the Buds

A Goddess Arrives, and High Magic's Aid, by Gerald Gardner. The first one is a (bad) novel, in which Gardner first explored ideas of reincarnation and goddess worship. The second is another novel in which he reveals much of his thinking during the years he was first creating Wicca. Both are now available in reprint editions from the Church & School of Wicca at or from other online dealers.

Witchcraft In Roman And Saxon Times

The position of the cult in Roman and Saxon times seems rather a puzzle. The great question is, were the witches and the Druids members of the same cult The witches have no exact traditions on the subject. Personally, I think they were not the witch cult was the religion of the soil, as it were, and the Druids were the more aristocratic religion, much as things were a thousand years later, when the witch cult was the religion of the peasants, but the Roman Church was the dominant power. The latter was not only a religion, but also the Civil Service, the educational system, the politicians, and the not so very hidden hand which ruled the kings. The Druids seem to have occupied a similar position.

Witchcraft What Its Really Like

Contrary to folk tales, they don't go riding about by night on brooms. They don't cavort in the nude unless they have something very normal in mind, and they don't cackle over cauldrons of vintage LSD. They DO dabble in spells and chants, burning candles and employing powerful processes, but once the mystery is stripped away, there is nothing much more strange connected with witchcraft than the mysteries of love and religion. In fact, when lovers light candles for dinner, and when churchgoers light candles in prayer, they invoke a force that witches always have known to be beneficial. Witches are selfish, but is that evil Being self-interested, a witch has to be personally motivated to dp anything, anything at all, even to get up in the morning. Witches do not go anywhere they don't want to go or do anything they don't want to do. This kind of an approach to living would naturally enrage churchmen who demand strict obedience to their rigid laws and...

The Powers and Their Attainment

The domain of witchcraft is the realm of the unseen and the point at which it impinges upon man's psyche, and as it is in this very same area that the various churches have sought to dabble their fingers, it is with these institutions that we witches take issue in principle. Ironically, you will find that all the innovators and founders of said religions were revolutionaries in their time who took issue with their parent religions and were usually labeled heretics of one sort or another for their pains.

See African witchcraft

John Fian Scotland Witch

John Fian and his coven fly widdershins around the church (FROM F ARMYTAGE IN SIR WALTER SCOTT'S letters on demonol-ogy and witchcraft COURTESY MARY EVANS PICTURE LIBRARY) John Fian and his coven fly widdershins around the church (FROM F ARMYTAGE IN SIR WALTER SCOTT'S letters on demonol-ogy and witchcraft COURTESY MARY EVANS PICTURE LIBRARY)

Appendix On and Offline Wiccan Resources

The Aquarian Tabernacle Church has it's website at . This is one of the largest Wiccan churches in the world, with legal recognition in the U.S.A. and other countries. ATC provides a legal umbrella for qualifying covens desiring legal and tax-exempt status. Their email address is . They can be reached offline at Box 409, Index, WA, USA 98258. The Church and School of Wicca, run by Wic-can authors Gavin and Yvonne Frost, has their website at . The Frosts offer correspondence courses, books, videos, annual get-togethers, etc. related to Frostian Wicca. Their email address is . They can be written to via Box 297, Hinton, WV, USA 25951.

Some Remarks On Witchcraft In Ireland

Protestant) portion of the country that we find the development of witchcraft along similar lines to those in England or the Continent, and it is with this that we are dealing in this book the Celtic element had its own superstitious beliefs, but these never developed in this direction. In England and Scotland during the medieval and later periods of its existence witchcraft was an offence against the laws of God and man in Celtic Ireland dealings with the unseen were not regarded with such abhorrence, and indeed had the sanction of custom and antiquity. In England after the Reformation we seldom find members of the Roman Catholic Church taking any prominent part in witch cases, and this is equally true of Ireland from the same date. Witchcraft seems to have been confined m the Protestant party, as far as we can judge from the material at our disposal, while it is probable that the existence of the penal laws (active or an enemy of the Church, though they fully believed in...

Neopagan Witchcraft Reference Books and Anthologies

Witchcraft, Satanism & Occult Crime Who's Who & What's What, a Manual of Reference Materials for the Professional Investigator, by the Church of All Worlds' Staff. An inexpensive yet invaluable tool for those concerned about occult crime and whether the neighborhood Pagans might be involved in something terrible. Can be bought from the Church of All Worlds . Give one to your local law enforcement agency.

Becomes Massachusetts judge

1671 he graduated from Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a bachelors degree and three years later earned a masters degree from the same institution. Sewall was then ordained a minister, but he left the church to go into business when he married Hannah Hull in 1675. Sewall's father-in-law, John Hull, was the master of the mint (a government agency that prints money) for the Massachusetts Bay Colony and therefore had extensive connections in the business community. At Hull's urging, Sewall moved to Boston in 1681 to take over management of the colony's printing press. By the early 1690s he was a prominent figure in Boston business and political circles. He was a banker, publisher, international trader, and member of the colonial court. Although Sewall had no formal legal training, he also served as a judge (at that time a law degree was not required). Sewall began his long career as a public official in 1683, when he was appointed to the Massachusetts General Court. The...

Witchcraft and Sorcery

In the extension of its power as a religious, social and political force, the church had long opposed pagan practices and sORCERY, especially sacrifices to DEMONs. From the 8th century to about the 12th century, the church sought to wipe out paganism. By the 13th century, there was more tolerance, and the church itself even acquired an aura of magical power. Practices of alchemy, MAGIC, sorcery, divination and necromancy were widespread, even in the church. John XXII was well aware of this activity and was a believer himself, using magical talismans for protection. A necromantic plot of sympathetic magic was directed at him and his cardinals. The plot failed, but the pope responded by turning the Inquisition against sorcery.

Men Of Renown Rosicrucian

Which brings me to the crux of the matter. According to ancient magical legend, Azael was originally one of those beings of primordial fire, first created dwellers in the high heaven, referred to by the Christian church as messengers, or angels, by the Greeks as daemons. Azael and his followers, according to old lore, in defiance of their masters, elected to descend upon the earth countless eons ago, for the purpose of educating and civilizing primitive man as he then existed. Whether it was part of their original plan or merely a side issue, these angelic beings, Sons of God or Watchers of the Heavens, as they were entitled, elected to mate with womankind. The Book of Genesis briefly records the legend thus The heresy trials of the Waldenses, Albigenses, and Knights Templar had spanned the twelfth, thirteen, and fourteenth centuries, as Mother Church consolidated herself and waged war against the forces of dissolution and darkness manifesting as rival doctrinal factions within her...

Lady of the Moon Earth Mother Sister of Power

Indeed, the rebirth of Goddess worship in general in the last few years has had a dramatic influence western women, who have long been denied access to the feminine aspect of Deity (save in the thinly disguised Mary worship in the Catholic Church), have found their voices and themselves within the Goddess.

American Feminist Witchcraft

There is no doubt that the USA had its own indigenous pagan revival indeed, it produced the first self-conscious modern pagan religion, the Church of Aphrodite, established in Long Island m 1938 (Adler, 1986 233-6). From the 1930s at latest, also, it contained groups of witches working initiatory traditions, although their beliefs and rites are now very hard to reconstruct because they were later heavily overlaid by those of Wicca, coming m from England (Adler, 1986 67-9 Kelly, 1991 23-6). All the English branches of the religion arrived there in the 1960s and 1970s, but more important still were the books of Murray and Gardner, which were read by people trained m folk magic imported into America

The Myth Of Pagan Witchcraft

As the earlier contributions to this series have made clear, by the end of the eighteenth century educated opinion in Europe had virtually ceased to believe in the reality of acts of witchcraft. Such a change made the early modern trials and executions appear to have been a senseless series of atrocities, born of superstition and obscurantism, and that is how they were portrayed by the writers of the Enlightenment. As such, they represented a superb weapon with which to castigate the old order in Church and state. This liberal,- rationalist, discourse became the dominant one in European and American academe until the 1960s the ending of the trials for witchcraft was repeatedly cited as one of the supreme triumphs of reason and science over the ancient evils of humanity. This idea had the potential to deprive liberalism of one of its favourite means of discrediting the confessional state, and invited a response. It was provided resoundingly by the Frenchman Jules Michelet, one of the...

Firth Violet Mary See Dion Fortune

After three years, Fitch returned to civilian life in the United States, working as a technical writer and electronics engineer in Washington, D.C. It was now the 1960s, and contemporary Witchcraft and Paganism were spreading around the country. Fitch was initiated into the Gard-nerian tradition of Witchcraft by Raymond and Rosemary Buckland (see Raymond Buckland) and rose to the rank of high priest. He also was trained in trance channeling by Spiritualist mediums from the Church of All Worlds.

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