The Church Growth Kit

Ministry Letters

Ministry Letters Version 2.0 is a software tool that contains letter templates for pastors and secretaries. The powerful software program helps men of God locate just that right letter to send out to either congregation or committee members, and begin to encourage people in ways you have never dreamed of before. The software will make your life simple and stress-free, as well as making sending letters to church members easy and quick. Ministry Letters Version 2.0 comes in an easy-to-download PDF format and is easy to use by virtually anyone. Ministry Letters Version 2.0 is a great product that will make your life easier as a pastor or church secretary. The software includes hundreds of letter templates that you can simply edit and send to the members of the church.Grab the Ministry Letters Version 2.0 and make your life easier. Continue reading...

Ministry Letters Summary

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Highly Recommended

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Church and School of Wicca

Church and School of Wicca Religious and educational institutions founded by GAVIN AND Yvonne Frost, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Church of Wicca, founded in 1968, is the oldest recognized church of Witchcraft in the United States, achieving federal recognition in 1972. Its teaching arm is the School of Wicca, which offers correspondence courses. History. The Frosts, who were living in St. Louis, Missouri, developed correspondence courses out of their interest and involvement in Witchcraft and began advertising the courses as the School of Wicca. They followed with the founding of the church in 1968. Working with lawyers, Gavin Frost was able to win a Letter of Determination from the Internal Revenue Service giving religious recognition to Wicca and Witchcraft. The ruling, which came in 1972, made the church the first Wiccan church to achieve this federal recognition, and the first to use Wicca to describe the religion of Witchcraft. The same year, the Frosts began to work...

The Curse On The Catholic Church

Serbian Christmas Color Page For Adult

For centuries the Catholic Church has wielded fantastic power, both temporal and spiritual. Its infamous Holy Inquisition equals in terror, bloodshed and sadism that of Hitler's Nazi Germany. Though not a practicing Catholic, Hitler was nevertheless baptised into the Catholic religion. He has never been excommunicated. Yet Catholics whose only offense was marrying outside their religion or perhaps attacking some of the Papal encyclicals have been. If this seems inconsistent it's not. Both the Catholic Church and Nazi Germany committed mass murders. They brooked no opposition. Opponents and heretics were burned at the stake or in modern ovens. Both demanded complete obedience and faith . There are many documented cases of those who were accused of heresy, witchcraft and communion with the devil who died in defiance. As the flames consumed their bodies they cursed the Pope, the Catholic Church, its Cardinals, and the Inquisitors. The Gypsies, the Moors The Jews, and all those Catholics...

The Processchurch Of The Final Judgement

In the early 1960s, two members of the Church of Scientology, Robert and Mary Anne de Gnmston Moore, who had been working as therapists left to set up -m business for themselves to develop the techniques used by the Scientologists even further. They called their approach 'Compulsions Analysis' and claimed that it enabled individuals to realize their full potential. Their technique was named a 'Process'-, after the Scientology technique. Soon their success enabled them to rent premises in Mayfair. Their group therapy sessions produced strong bonds between themselves and their clients to the point where they realized they had created a new religion, which was ultimately to be called The Process-Church of the Final Judgement. About 30 of them left London to found the ideal community and after some years spent wandering from place to place, including a period of proselytization in London and similar trips in the USA, they setded in eastern North America They had by then had some contact...

Formation of the Church

In the novel, Valentine Michael Smith is an Earthman born on Mars and raised by Martians. He eventually returns to Earth, where he finds that his upbringing renders him literally a stranger in a strange land. Smith forms the Church of All Worlds, organized in nests. The church teaches grokking, or the intuiting of the fullness of all things and beings, and joyful, coequal love between the sexes. God is immanent in all things church mem From Atl, Zell founded CAW, and it evolved under his leadership. The church filed for incorporation in 1967 and was formally chartered on March 4, 1968, making it the first of the Pagan earth religions in the United States to obtain full federal recognition as a church. Zell coined the term Neo-Pagan to apply to the emerging, ecology-conscious Earth religions of the 1960s. CAW initially was refused recognition as a church by the state of Missouri because of its lack of dogma concerning God, the hereafter, the fate of souls, heaven and hell, and sin and...

The seven reasons why some are not rid of the divell with all their popish conjurations why there were no conjurors in

THE reason why some are not remedied for all their conjurations, the papists say is for seven causes. First, for that the faith of the standers by is naught secondlie, for that theirs that present the partie is no better thirdlie, bicause of the sinnes of the bewitched fourthlie, for the neglecting of meete remedies fiftlie, for the reverence of vertues going out into others sixtlie, for the purgation seventhlie, for the merit of the partie bewitched. And lo, the first foure are proved by Matthew the 7. and Marke the 4. when one presented his sonne, and the multitude wanted faith, & the father said, Lord help mine incredulitie or unbeleefe. Wherupon was said, Oh faithlesse and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you And where these words are written And Jesus rebuked him, &c. That is to saie, saie they, the possessed or bewitched for his sinnes. For by the neglect of due remedies it appeereth, that there were not with Christ good and perfect men for the pillers of the faith...

Lessons read in all churches where the pope hath authoritie on S Margarets daie translated into Enghsh word for word

Grant therefore O father, that whosoever writeth, readeth, or heareth my passion, or maketh memoriall of me, may deserve pardon for all his sinnes whosoever calleth on me, being at the point of death, deliver him out of the hands of his adversaries. And I also require, O Lord, that whosoever shall build a church in the honor of me, or ministreth unto me anie candles of his just labour, let him obteine whatsoever he asketh for his health. Deliver all women in travell that call upon me, from the danger thereof.

The Church Of Satan

The Church of Satan was founded m California in 1966 by Anton Szandor LaVey, a colourful figure of considerable personal magnetism, with a varied and unusual life already behind him. He had earned his living from music as a teenager, then worked in a circus as a lion tamer, calliope player, fortuneteller and hypnotist, was once employed as photographer m a police crime-laboratory and in an insurance company, and had been an organist and a clinical hypnotist. He was widely read in magic and the occult, on which he gave public lectures. His published rituals are in a variety of languages including Hnochian. This is a magical language attributed to the magician John Dee, translated by the Order of the Golden Dawn and believed to be older than Sanskrit and possibly to denve from Ancient Egypt. LaVey's taste m music, at least as far as his choice of music for ritual is i concerned, seems to be very different from the heavy-metal rock music associated in the popular imagination with...

The Gnostic Church

The Gnostic Church is the authentic Church of our Lord the Christ. It is the temple of Initiations and it is situated within the Astral plane. Our Lord the Christ and the Holy Masters officiate there. On Fridays and Sundays, the disciple can assist the 'Pretor' in order to receive the Holy Unction of bread and wine and in order to be cured of any sickness. This Church has 11,000 vestals. The twenty and four Elders of the Apocalypse (Revelation) dwell there. This Church has esoteric instruction rooms for the disciples, in which the Masters teach and instruct. The Masters of the Holy Gnostic Church concur to the bed of the sick in order to heal them. A Gnostic Prayer exists, which every sick person must pronounce in order to ask the Masters for help. Behold, the prayer

The Kyteler Case And Its Surroundings Of Sorcery And Heresymichael Scotthe Fourth Earl Of Desmondjames I And The Irish

And the Church. 1 From this it would seem that heresy and unorthodoxy had already made its appearance in the diocese. In 1324 the Kyteler case occurred, one of the participants being burnt at the stake, while other incriminated persons were subsequently followed up, some of whom shared the fate of Petronilla. In 1327 Adam Dubh, of the Leinster tribe of O'Toole, was burnt alive on College Green for denying the doctrines of the Incarnation and the Holy Trinity, as well as for rejecting the authority of the Holy See. 2 In 1335 Pope Benedict XII wrote a letter to King Edward III, in which occurs the following passage It has come to our knowledge that while our venerable brother, Richard, Bishop of Ossory, was visiting his diocese, there appeared in the midst of his catholic people men who were heretics together with their abettors, some of whom asserted that Jesus the sacrament of the Body of Christ than the Catholic Church teaches, saying that the same venerable sacrament is by no means...

Christmas Pagan Holiday

Christmas Pagan

Before the advent of Christianity, and long before the Holy Roman Catholic Church officially sanctioned December 25 th as Christmas (Christ Mass) this was the date celebrating the Winter Solstice, wherein ancients rejoiced in the Birthday of the Sun, when days became longer and the sun's power increased. The sun became deified and personified in such figures of Mithra, Horus, Osiris and Adonis. The Catholic Church selected December 25th to coincide with the pagan holiday of December 25th in an attempt to assimilate non-Christians. The Christian world had no history of its own for hundreds of years, no historical chronology for at least four hundred years. An older Encyclopedia Britannica states Christians count one hundred and thirty-three contrary opinions of different authors concerning the year the Messiah appeared on earth many of them celebrated writers. St. Nicholas St. Nick was reputedly born at Patara, Lycia, Asia Minor, around the fourth century A.D. He became the Christian...

Englands Old Religions

Wicca is commonly called the 'old religion' by its practitioners, a designation that is intended to claim historical ancestry to validate some of its practices. However, this chapter argues that this term does more than retrace or reread a past (religare) and claim to maintain rituals of an ancient Wiccan ancestry (its traditio). 'Old' and 'new' religion are value-laden terms that have links with a political history dating from the time of the Tudor reformations in England, for the term had earlier served both the Church of England and the Catholic traditions of Christianity in the period between the reformations and the nineteenth century. In continental Europe, the various forms of Protestantism that arose in the course of the sixteenth century were seen to offer new experiences of Christianity. Characterised as throwing off the shackles of popery, magic, superstition and monasticism, the reformed Protestant traditions relegated the tropes of Roman Catholicism to the 'dark ages' of...

There have been Witches in all Ages

The unfortunate consequence of the low position of woman in the Middle Ages, when it was against the general tradition of the Church to try and improve her status, or raise it to what it was in pre-Christian times, should be remembered. So the Church fulminated against Haracelsus when he wrote a book in praise of women, calling him a 'woman worshipper'. As Mr. Hughes says 'This meant that many women resented this subjugation, and a secret religion, where woman was important and which made sexual activity a proud mystery instead of a drudgery, was made. This religion also served as a psychological Cave of Adullam for emotional women, repressed women, masculine women, and those suffering from personal disappointment, or from nervous maladjustment which had not been resolved by the local resources of the Church.' At times the Church ignored the witch but when the Papacy became firmly established the priests treated the cult as a hated rival and tried to persecute it out of existence. The...

The Witches and the Mysteries

So when old writers who were initiated say 'all the mysteries were the same', surely they must mean the inner essences were the same. A heathen examining the various Christian sects, Catholic, Roman and Orthodox, Presbyterian, Methodist and Church of England Churches, would say they are at heart all the same. They all worship the Triune God, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost.

Malew Street Haunted Isle Of

Frost, Gavin (1930- ) and Yvonne (1931- ) Witches, authors and founders of the Church AND SCHOOL OF WlCCA, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Frosts have steadfastly followed their own path in the Craft, and whenever that took them out of mainstream views, they have weathered much criticism from others in the Wiccan Pagan communities. Though the Frosts are Witches, they do not consider themselves Pagans, because they do not worship nature or named deities. They are Seeing the confusion about Witchcraft and Wicca in the general population in the United States, and reading of negative behaviors being called Witchcraft, they decided they would try to change the popular image of the religion they had espoused. They coauthored a book, The Witch's Bible, but could not find a publisher for it. As an alternative, they organized the material as correspondence courses and advertised the School of Wicca in magazines. The federal recognition of the church followed in 1972. The Frosts married...

Modern Ideas Of Satanism

Secret organisation dedicated to the worship of its head and master, Satan and to working for the overthrow of the Christian Church and Christian civilization. Its rituals of worship are believed to be characterized by all that is most evil and depraved they include human sacrifice, cannibalism and depraved sexual orgies where all the rules of incest and social custom are ignored. Versions of this belief are held by many twentieth-century Christians all over the world, more particularly m the Protestant denominations, and most of all in the fundamentalist and charismatic sects. Some people who do not see themselves as Christian at all may also hold variants of this belief.

Satanism And The Occult

The figure of Satan m romantic literature, particularly in the nineteenth century, has been used to represent the rebellion of the individual against the powerful, whether these are secular monarchs. Church leaders or the impersonal bureaucrats of the state. His fall from Heaven was portrayed as the result of his daring to opppose the all-powerful, rather than m the more orthodox manner as the triumph of good over evil, and he became, by this strange twist, a symbol of human liberty (Russell, 1991). Self-styled satamsts perceive themselves as aligned with this idealistic Satan, as iconoclasts and rebels, fighting to free individuals from the respression imposed by a Christian society. There are two main tenets to their opposition first, they claim that Christianity denies and suppresses the physical nature of human beings, stigmatizing the body and its pleasures as evil. They therefore take the opposite view. Secondly they deny the Christian moral evaluation of self-seeking as wrong,...

The rules and lawes of popish Exorcists and other conjurors all one with a confutation of their whole power how S

Where is such a promise to conjurors or witches, as is made in the Gospell Mark 16.17. to the faithfull where it is written In my name they shall cast out divels, speake with new toongs if they shall drinke any deadlie thing, it shall not hurt them they shall take awaie serpents, they shall laie hands on the sicke, and they shall recover. According to the promise, this grant of miraculous working was performed in the primitive church, for the confirmation of Christs doctrine, and the establishing of the Gospell.

Out of the Land of Egypt

We see the Roman priest in his temple crudely and literally emasculating his followers. Today the father in the Church, the school and the law court is equally destroying the manhood of his sons by means less rough but none the less effective because they are so widespread.'

Bewitchment See blasting curse hex illwishing maleficia spell

Bibliomancy The use of the Bible for divination. The Bible served as an important instrument of magical divination, particularly during medieval and Reformation times in Britain and parts of Europe. It was believed that the Bible, opened at random, would reveal one's fortunes or answer questions. Bibles laid on a child's head would induce sleep. Reading from the Bible to a pregnant woman would give her a safe delivery. Persons accused of wiTCHCRAFT and sORCERY were weighed against the great Bible in the local church. If the accused weighed less than the Bible, she or he was innocent. A method of Bibliomancy to determine guilt in a crime was the key and book method, still used in some rural parts of Britain as late as the 19th century. In that procedure, a key was placed randomly within the pages of the Bible. The names of the suspects were written on small pieces of paper and inserted up the hollow end of the key. When the paper bearing the name of the guilty party was inserted, the...

Satanist and pseudosatanist groups

There are only two long-standing, well-established groups of satamsts and each is largely the creation of one man. The Church of Satan and the Temple of Set were founded 30 and 20 years ago respectively. The founder of the Church of Satan died only m October 1997 and the founder of the Temple of Set is still its leader. Both men have been public figures in California, although they should probably be described as notorious rather than famous for their activities, since their publicity has been, probably intentionally in the case of the Church of Satan, the cause of public scandal. These founders have published a good deal of material from which the observer can learn about the two organizations' ideas and rituals, but there have been no recent estimates of their membership, whether by themselves or observers. Their active membership, however, is probably a good deal smaller than the numbers who buy their magazines or show a short-term interest. Both organizations have an international...

Black Goat See Baphomet

In a Holy Mass, then he surely can effect MAGIC in a mass used for other purposes. Priests who attempted to subvert the Holy Mass for evil purposes, such as cursing a person to death (see curse), were condemned by the Catholic church as early as the 7th century. The mass is said upon a broken and desecrated altar in some ruined or deserted church where owls hoot and mope and bats flit through the crumbling windows, where toads spit their venom upon the sacred stone. The priest must make his way thither late, attended only by an acolyte of impure and evil life. At the first stroke of eleven he begins the liturgy of hell is mumbled backward, the canon said with a mow and a sneer he ends just as midnight tolls. The beginnings of the Black Mass as it is known in modern times date back to the 14th century, when the church was persecuting heretics. Most of the Black Mass cases centered in France. In 1307 the KNIGHTs Templar were accused of conducting blasphemous rites in which they...

Neo Paganism recognized as religion

Witches America

By the 1970s numerous covens and spiritual groups were independently reviving rituals and beliefs based on ancient documents or rein-terpretations of myths. Many Neo-Paganists called themselves Wiccans. In 1975 the Covenant of the Goddess (CoG) was formed to incorporate hundreds of separate Wiccan covens and was officially recognized as a church in the United States. The CoG is the largest Wiccan organization, representing a variety of belief systems and practices. Its acceptance by official organizations such as the Internal Revenue Service helped to integrate Wiccans into mainstream American society. At the end of the twentieth century Wicca was the eighth largest religion in the United States, ranking with Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other established faiths. This fact is not generally known because many Wiccans observe their rituals in small groups, or even in secret, fearing that they will be attacked as Satan worshipers. Although Wicca and witchcraft are often used...

Carmoney Witch See Mary Butters

Mary Butters The Witch

Carpenter was born on January 16, 1954, in Hillsboro, Wisconsin, a farming community in southwestern Wisconsin, not far from his present home at Circle. He was raised on a dairy farm in a Protestant family and spent a great deal of time in childhood outdoors, learning to appreciate nature. A pivotal experience of finding the spiritual dimensions of nature came in high school, when he participated in the Endu Club (Endu was short for Endurance ), a church-sponsored activity for boys featuring outdoors adventures.

Gilber Tgerard Chelmsford Witches

Agnes Waterhouse

The first trial occurred in the summer of 1566, under the rule of Queen Elizabeth, whose Parliament had passed the second of England's three witchcraft acts in 1563. The Act of 1563 tightened penalties for witchcraft, making it a felony to invoke evil spirits for any purpose, regardless of whether or not harm resulted. It provided for mandatory jail sentences but did not provide for the death penalty unless a human being died because of maleficia. Thus, the 1566 Chelmsford trials became the first significant witch trials to be tested under the new law. The outcome of the trials took on further weight because of the prestigious judge and prosecutors John Southcote, a justice of the Queen's Bench Rev. Thomas Cole, a rector of a church near Chelmsford Sir John Fortescue, who later became chancellor of the Exchequer and, most no-

Witch Attacking Postures

Witchcraft Book

In closing I'd like to quote one more statement from America's own Mark Twain in his book Europe And Elsewhere During many ages there were witches. The Bible said so. The Bible commanded that they should not be allowed to live. Therefore the Church, after doing its duty in but a lazy and indolent way for 800 years, gathered up its halters, thumbscrews, and firebrands, and set about its holy work in earnest. She worked hard at it night and day during nine centuries and imprisoned, tortured, hanged and burned whole hordes and armies of witches, and washed the Christian world clean with their foul blood. Then it was discovered that there are no such thing as

Cunningham John See John Fian

Judith Phillips Cunning Woman

Traditionally, cunning men and women came into their craft by heredity, such as James MuRRELL, one of England's most famous cunning men. Others acquired their gifts by supernatural intervention, such as from FAIRIEs or the dead, or from divine intervention. Some, in fact, were revered in earlier times as semi-divine. Their abilities were from their gifts and knowledge, or cunning, as opposed to any particular holy status in the church. The magic they practiced was a home-made amalgam of Christian prayers and rites mixed with pagan material, folk magic and occultism. Folk magical arts were passed along in oral tradition, embroidered, embellished and changed as time passed. Cunning men and women who could read possessed various magical texts, including famous grimoires such as The Greater Key of Solomon (see grimoires) or the Fourth Book of Agrippa. spouse. Court records in England show that not all cunning men and women worked cheaply. Some assessed the aristocracy for hefty 40- and...

Emotional Bondage Spell

If fooling around with candles makes you feel odd, consider this Millions and millions of people, for century after century, spent their most thoughtful moments staring at the tongues of fire from candles and torches and, before that, campfires. And untold millions, attending church ceremonies, were conditioned by flickering candlefire as they made their strongest efforts to contact the supernatural, God. Odd Not a bit. If thought has any force beyond our own small persons, then no greater communication with the thought energies of millions could be approached than through the common human fascination with controlled fire.

Occult And Religious Organizations

The World Council of Churches and the National Council of Churches are the two organizations which seek to unite all Protestant and Independent Denominations together as One, in association with the Roman Catholic Church. From the WCC stemmed the Thought of Higher Criticism, a Theological view which seeks to tear down the Divine Inspiration of the Scriptures. The WCC condones Communism and also seeks to be at peace with any pagan religion. It finances worldwide rebellion with moneys received from American churches. Scientology is the main Christian church which teaches psychic healing and mind-over-matter. The Unity church is the main platform for witches to speak to Christians. The Unity Church is primarily a Philosophy-teaching organization. (The Unity Church in Dallas, Texas had a series of sermons which taught that all walks of life and occupations are in harmony with God. These series ended with an exhibition by one of its members a strip-tease artist who did her act for the...

The Pentacle of Protection

Pentacle Talismans Chamois

On a Tuesday or Saturday midnight, with the moon waxing, cast and purify your regular circle, using an incense of either pure dragon's-blood resin or one compounded of one part church incense, one part lignum aloes, one part powdered alum, and five drops of Cedarwood oil. Then take some of your talisman paper, and from it cut three four-inch squares. Exorcise these with fire and water.

Bowers Roy See Cochrane Robert

Bradley was sometimes called a witch or Wiccan priestess, which she publicly disavowed. She described herself as an occultist and student of ceremonial MAGIC, but not a witch. That is not my path in this life, stated Bradley, who was an ordained priest in the New Catholic Church. I myself am unalterably Christian.

The Art of Fascination

The rituals themselves in this area of magic are ruled by a very different power to Habondia. In fact, we are dealing with her consort, the Horned One, in medieval times claimed by the church to be none other than Satan himself. The attribution is merely scholarly, however, as the Horned One existed long before Christianity came into existence, with its concept of the devil. Whereas Habondia's symbol is the dove, Old Horny's is the goat. To students of symbolism, this attribute should speak for itself. The goat is the age-old representative of lust and debauchery, and Cernunnos himself, for such is his witch name, is frequently represented as possessing the cloven hooves, horns, and erect phallus of his attribute.

The trial of Rebecca Nurse

Samuel Parris

On March 24, 1692, Edward and Jonathan Putnam (uncle and cousin, respectively, of Ann, Jr.) swore out a formal complaint against Nurse and issued a warrant for her arrest on charges of criminal witchcraft against the entire group of girls. When Nurse was taken to the meetinghouse (the term for a Puritan church) for a pretrial hearing, two factions (opposing groups) immediately formed over the issue of her guilt or innocence. Even Hathorne took a remarkably gentle approach in questioning her, even showing some pity. In the meetinghouse Nurse told the crowd that not only had she been lying in bed gravely ill for the past eighty-nine days, she had never harmed anyone in her entire life. When she was accused of murdering several children, she suggested another possibility, as quoted in Rice's Salem Witch Trials I do not know what to think of it. . . . The Devil may appear in any shape. Nurse's response suggested a new theory in the minds of some citizens perhaps the devil was wandering...

The Servants Of Satan

The idea of Satan's servants had been developed earlier m the Church's fight against heretics. It came to be believed that there were regular gatherings to celebrate and worship their diabolic master. What was thought to happen at these gatherings drew on folk beliefs that had been used first against Christians by Romans. These were then used by Christians in their turn against heretics, the Jews, Templars and all others who were considered enemies of the Church. The folklore referred to secret meetings in which demons and Satan himself participated and at which slaughtered babies were consumed in a feast and there were orgies of sex in which all normal restraints, including those prohibiting incest, were abandoned. Variations on the central themes of murder, cannibalism and orgiastic sex took into account particular practices or beliefs with which the accused were associated. Thus the Templars, who were sworn to celibacy, were accused of sodomy, and the Jews, whose food taboos set...

Tituba and the Parris Family

Little is known about Tituba's life aside from her connection to the Parris family, primarily because she was a slave but also because she came from far-away Barbados. It is believed that Parris bought Tituba and her husband John Indian while living in Barbados in the 1670s. He took them to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1680 after his failed business attempts in Barbados convinced him to seek a job as a pastor in New England. Eventually he was hired to start a church in Salem Village. Tituba and John Indian moved to Salem with Parris in 1688 and were immediately considered outsiders in this small, isolated town where owning a slave, particularly a Carib rather than an African, was uncommon. Tituba and John Indian were given the majority of the indoor and outdoor chores of the household. Tituba was also in charge of caring for the children while the Parrises were making social calls in the parish.

Fox fire See jackolantern

Selena Fox

Fox, Selena (1949- ) American Wiccan high priestess, Pagan scholar, ecospiritual minister and ritual artist. Selena Fox is renowned for her leadership role in the international Wiccan-Pagan community and for founding Circle Sanctuary, a legally recognized Wiccan church with a worldwide Pagan ministry. Born October 20, 1949, in Arlington, Virginia, Fox was raised in a fundamentalist Southern Baptist family. As a child, she began having mystical experiences, out-of-body travel and psychic visions. Upon reaching her teens, she pursued her interest in dreams, the psychic and parapsychology and learned how to give psychic readings with Tarot cards. She left the Southern Baptist Church while in high school, citing a number of reasons, including the church's disapproval of dancing and its refusal to allow women to become pastors. In October 1974, Fox conceived the name, logo and central spiritual focus for Circle, also known as Circle Sanctuary. Fox, along with her partner, Jim Alan, and a...

John Stearne Lawshall

Witches Manningtree

Hopkins pleaded innocent but was swum at Mistley Pond by an angry mob. According to some accounts, he drowned, while others say he floated, was condemned and hanged. No record exists of a trial, if there was one. There is a record of his burial at the Mistley Church in 1647, though there is no tombstone (not uncommon for 17th-century graves). One chronicler of the times said that the burial must have been done in the dark of night outside the precincts of the Church, witnessed by no one local. Hopkins' ghost is said to haunt Mistley Pond. An apparition dressed in 17th-century attire is reportedly seen in the vicinity.

Thomas Aquinas Witchcraft

The victim of perhaps the single most famous witchcraft accusation made in Scandinavia, Anna was the wife of the Lutheran minister and famous scholar Absalon Pedersen Beyer. The charges against her arose mainly out of popular opposition to the attempts by Absalon and other Protestant clergy to remove holy images from the churches of Bergen, Sweden, in accordance with Lutheran teachings. Because the clergymen themselves were too highly placed for their efforts to be resisted directly, opposition focused on Anna. She was first acquitted of charges in 1575, but more accusations arose years later. She was tried again and executed in 1590. Her trial later became the basis for a play and then the film by Carl Theodore Dreyer, Day of Wrath. ALEXANDER V, POPE (ca. 1340-1410). Reigning for only a short time from 1409 to 1410, Alexander V, in his first year as pope, sent a letter to the Franciscan inquisitor Pontus Fougeyron in which he announced his concern...

Holly Weather Divination

Examine the tea leaves carefully for any symbols, pictures, letters and or numbers that are made, for each one possesses a divinatory meaning. For instance, if the leaves take on the shape of a heart, this indicates future happiness. If two hearts are seen, this is said to be a sure sign that wedding bells will be ringing for you (or someone close to you) in the near future. News of a marriage proposal or a wedding will be forthcoming should the symbol of a church, a wedding ring, or a bride and groom be seen.

Attacking Martha Corey

Martha Corey (also spelled Cory) was eighty-one years old and the third wife of Giles Corey, a wealthy landowner whose property straddled the line between Salem Village and Salem Town. Though a faithful church member, she was known for being opinionated. She had also created a ripple of controversy early in her adult life by giving birth to an illegitimate mulatto (of mixed racial descent) child. These factors combined against Martha Corey when, on March 19, Edward Putnam, a member of the powerful Putnam family, and Ezekiel Cheever, the court reporter, came to her home and accused her of practicing witchcraft. Prior to their visit Corey's primary accuser, Ann Putnam, Jr, claimed that she had been temporarily blinded and could not describe the clothing Corey was wearing when the old woman had supposedly bewitched her. Edward Putnam and Cheever confronted Corey with evidence that she had afflicted Ann and other girls. Although Corey denied accusations of witchcraft, she tried to...

The Persecution Of Witches

Witchcraft Magazine

Of course, this occurred to some extent before the Burning Times. The difference was that now the Church and State were legalising and even encouraging this persecution. Even faeries became associated with witchcraft. The Bean-Tighe, a faerie housekeeper, popular in the mythology of Ireland and Scotland, was said to reside with the village wise woman and assist her with chores in the worst of the wave of hysteria over witchcraft, if an old women had an immaculate house, it was claimed she had faerie help - and so by implication was consorting with the Devil.

Girls target Tituba and others

Within days they were taken to the village for questioning by magistrates (judges) John Hathorne and Johnathan Corwin. This was a major event in Salem Village. Almost everyone took the day off to witness the court proceedings. The accused were brought through the village in a formal procession before being taken into an overcrowded, makeshift courtroom at a village inn. There was not enough space for everyone, however, as people had come not only from the village but also from the surrounding areas of Tops-field, Ipswich, Beverly, and Salem Town. The size of the audience forced local leaders to find a larger building, so they decided to use the church meetinghouse instead. The officials and the girls were brought in first, then the church filled with people until every space was occupied. The room quieted as the first accused witches were brought to the front to be examined. Good and Osborne both spoke before Tituba and helped set the stage for her testimony. According...

Calling Down the Moon See Drawing Down the Moon

Ancient pagans used candles and lamps in religious observances, a practice which the Roman Christian theologian Tertullian (ca. 200) vehemently protested as the useless lighting of lamps at noonday. By the fourth century, both candles and lamps were part of Christian rituals, but it was not until the latter part of the Middle Ages that candles were placed on church altars. The Catholic Church established the use of consecrated holy candles in rituals of blessings and absolving sins, and in exorcising demons (see exorcism). Medieval farmers used holy candles to protect their livestock from danger and bewitchment. During the Inquisition, inquisitors' handbooks such as the Malleus Maleficarum (1486) prescribed holy candles as among those consecrated objects for preserving oneself from the injury of witches.

Other Satanist Groups

The Black Flame is bought by many satamsts outside the Church of Satan and knits small groups and individuals into a loose network of satamsts. There are said to be differences of oudook and practice among these groups, but most of those referred to in the literature follow the general line established by LaVey. The differences emphasised by the Temple of Set that allegedly set them off from all other groups are organizational and theoretical their practice of magic appears to be similar to those of other satamsts. Gordon Melton lists six satamst groups in the USA of which four were allegedly defunct Harvey lists two in Britain The Order of the Nine Angles and Dark Lily. Many more editors of satamst magazines were listed in The Black Flame and mention was made of small groups establishing themselves in various parts of the world, including Australia and New Zealand. In Norway, anon attacks on churches have been attributed to satamsts certainly one of three persons convicted for...

Heinrich Kramer and Jakob Sprenger

The Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of Witches) was the official handbook for detecting, capturing, torturing, and killing witches (see Chapter 1). It was written in 1486 by Austrian priest Heinrich Kramer (also spelled Kraemer) and German priest Jakob Sprenger, at the request of Pope Innocent VIII, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The document became the second-best-selling book in Europe for over two centuries (the top best-seller was the Bible). As the main justification for the persecution of witches, the authors relied on a brief passage in the Bible, that states Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live (Exodus 22 18). The Malleus Maleficarum was a three-part work that described witchcraft in elaborate detail. The first part acknowledged the existence of witches and condemned them as demons and heretics (those who break the laws of the church). Much power was given to an accuser, regardless of his or her status in the community, and anyone accused of witchcraft was immediately...

Gothic Witches and the Burning Times

IfljS y the eleventh century any remaining Classic Witches who might have been worshipping Pagan deities in the Church's territory had pretty much died out or gone far underground. Most of the Paleopagan cultures of western and central Europe had been destroyed, and pacification programs had been instituted against any remaining objectors. Having slain all available competition outside of the Church, the Christians proceeded to slay each other. The Inquisition was founded and Crusades mounted against heretics (which were much more successful than the Crusades mounted against the Moslems, who had the rude habit of winning). In 1324 Bernard Gui wrote a manual for heretic hunters that strongly influenced later ones. In 1376, Nicholas Eymeric published a popular handbook for inquisitors, which was in use through the end of the 15th century. In 1428, the Church created a six-point definition of a particular heresy in Calais and Arras (France) that was to eventually be used in a new...

Malleus becomes basis for laws

Witch-craft and there is no doubt that god would never permit such a thing to happen. The book became the guide for civil and church law for over two centuries, going through twenty-eight editions between 1486 and 1600. It was accepted by Catholics and Protestants alike as the authority on ridding Europe of satanism and witchcraft, which were now considered inseparable. The Malleus was both the catalyst and fuel for the intense panic and hatred that swept through Europe, resulting in what some have called genocide, the planned and systematic extermination of an entire group of people.

Mesopagan Witchcraft the Buds

A Goddess Arrives, and High Magic's Aid, by Gerald Gardner. The first one is a (bad) novel, in which Gardner first explored ideas of reincarnation and goddess worship. The second is another novel in which he reveals much of his thinking during the years he was first creating Wicca. Both are now available in reprint editions from the Church & School of Wicca at or from other online dealers.

Witchcraft In Roman And Saxon Times

The position of the cult in Roman and Saxon times seems rather a puzzle. The great question is, were the witches and the Druids members of the same cult The witches have no exact traditions on the subject. Personally, I think they were not the witch cult was the religion of the soil, as it were, and the Druids were the more aristocratic religion, much as things were a thousand years later, when the witch cult was the religion of the peasants, but the Roman Church was the dominant power. The latter was not only a religion, but also the Civil Service, the educational system, the politicians, and the not so very hidden hand which ruled the kings. The Druids seem to have occupied a similar position.

Witchcraft What Its Really Like

Contrary to folk tales, they don't go riding about by night on brooms. They don't cavort in the nude unless they have something very normal in mind, and they don't cackle over cauldrons of vintage LSD. They DO dabble in spells and chants, burning candles and employing powerful processes, but once the mystery is stripped away, there is nothing much more strange connected with witchcraft than the mysteries of love and religion. In fact, when lovers light candles for dinner, and when churchgoers light candles in prayer, they invoke a force that witches always have known to be beneficial. Witches are selfish, but is that evil Being self-interested, a witch has to be personally motivated to dp anything, anything at all, even to get up in the morning. Witches do not go anywhere they don't want to go or do anything they don't want to do. This kind of an approach to living would naturally enrage churchmen who demand strict obedience to their rigid laws and...

The Powers and Their Attainment

The domain of witchcraft is the realm of the unseen and the point at which it impinges upon man's psyche, and as it is in this very same area that the various churches have sought to dabble their fingers, it is with these institutions that we witches take issue in principle. Ironically, you will find that all the innovators and founders of said religions were revolutionaries in their time who took issue with their parent religions and were usually labeled heretics of one sort or another for their pains.

See African witchcraft

John Fian Scotland Witch

John Fian and his coven fly widdershins around the church (FROM F ARMYTAGE IN SIR WALTER SCOTT'S letters on demonol-ogy and witchcraft COURTESY MARY EVANS PICTURE LIBRARY) John Fian and his coven fly widdershins around the church (FROM F ARMYTAGE IN SIR WALTER SCOTT'S letters on demonol-ogy and witchcraft COURTESY MARY EVANS PICTURE LIBRARY)

Appendix On and Offline Wiccan Resources

The Aquarian Tabernacle Church has it's website at . This is one of the largest Wiccan churches in the world, with legal recognition in the U.S.A. and other countries. ATC provides a legal umbrella for qualifying covens desiring legal and tax-exempt status. Their email address is . They can be reached offline at Box 409, Index, WA, USA 98258. The Church and School of Wicca, run by Wic-can authors Gavin and Yvonne Frost, has their website at . The Frosts offer correspondence courses, books, videos, annual get-togethers, etc. related to Frostian Wicca. Their email address is . They can be written to via Box 297, Hinton, WV, USA 25951.

Some Remarks On Witchcraft In Ireland

Protestant) portion of the country that we find the development of witchcraft along similar lines to those in England or the Continent, and it is with this that we are dealing in this book the Celtic element had its own superstitious beliefs, but these never developed in this direction. In England and Scotland during the medieval and later periods of its existence witchcraft was an offence against the laws of God and man in Celtic Ireland dealings with the unseen were not regarded with such abhorrence, and indeed had the sanction of custom and antiquity. In England after the Reformation we seldom find members of the Roman Catholic Church taking any prominent part in witch cases, and this is equally true of Ireland from the same date. Witchcraft seems to have been confined m the Protestant party, as far as we can judge from the material at our disposal, while it is probable that the existence of the penal laws (active or an enemy of the Church, though they fully believed in...

Neopagan Witchcraft Reference Books and Anthologies

Witchcraft, Satanism & Occult Crime Who's Who & What's What, a Manual of Reference Materials for the Professional Investigator, by the Church of All Worlds' Staff. An inexpensive yet invaluable tool for those concerned about occult crime and whether the neighborhood Pagans might be involved in something terrible. Can be bought from the Church of All Worlds . Give one to your local law enforcement agency.

Becomes Massachusetts judge

1671 he graduated from Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with a bachelors degree and three years later earned a masters degree from the same institution. Sewall was then ordained a minister, but he left the church to go into business when he married Hannah Hull in 1675. Sewall's father-in-law, John Hull, was the master of the mint (a government agency that prints money) for the Massachusetts Bay Colony and therefore had extensive connections in the business community. At Hull's urging, Sewall moved to Boston in 1681 to take over management of the colony's printing press. By the early 1690s he was a prominent figure in Boston business and political circles. He was a banker, publisher, international trader, and member of the colonial court. Although Sewall had no formal legal training, he also served as a judge (at that time a law degree was not required). Sewall began his long career as a public official in 1683, when he was appointed to the Massachusetts General Court. The...

Witchcraft and Sorcery

In the extension of its power as a religious, social and political force, the church had long opposed pagan practices and sORCERY, especially sacrifices to DEMONs. From the 8th century to about the 12th century, the church sought to wipe out paganism. By the 13th century, there was more tolerance, and the church itself even acquired an aura of magical power. Practices of alchemy, MAGIC, sorcery, divination and necromancy were widespread, even in the church. John XXII was well aware of this activity and was a believer himself, using magical talismans for protection. A necromantic plot of sympathetic magic was directed at him and his cardinals. The plot failed, but the pope responded by turning the Inquisition against sorcery.

Men Of Renown Rosicrucian

Which brings me to the crux of the matter. According to ancient magical legend, Azael was originally one of those beings of primordial fire, first created dwellers in the high heaven, referred to by the Christian church as messengers, or angels, by the Greeks as daemons. Azael and his followers, according to old lore, in defiance of their masters, elected to descend upon the earth countless eons ago, for the purpose of educating and civilizing primitive man as he then existed. Whether it was part of their original plan or merely a side issue, these angelic beings, Sons of God or Watchers of the Heavens, as they were entitled, elected to mate with womankind. The Book of Genesis briefly records the legend thus The heresy trials of the Waldenses, Albigenses, and Knights Templar had spanned the twelfth, thirteen, and fourteenth centuries, as Mother Church consolidated herself and waged war against the forces of dissolution and darkness manifesting as rival doctrinal factions within her...

Lady of the Moon Earth Mother Sister of Power

Indeed, the rebirth of Goddess worship in general in the last few years has had a dramatic influence western women, who have long been denied access to the feminine aspect of Deity (save in the thinly disguised Mary worship in the Catholic Church), have found their voices and themselves within the Goddess.

American Feminist Witchcraft

There is no doubt that the USA had its own indigenous pagan revival indeed, it produced the first self-conscious modern pagan religion, the Church of Aphrodite, established in Long Island m 1938 (Adler, 1986 233-6). From the 1930s at latest, also, it contained groups of witches working initiatory traditions, although their beliefs and rites are now very hard to reconstruct because they were later heavily overlaid by those of Wicca, coming m from England (Adler, 1986 67-9 Kelly, 1991 23-6). All the English branches of the religion arrived there in the 1960s and 1970s, but more important still were the books of Murray and Gardner, which were read by people trained m folk magic imported into America

The Myth Of Pagan Witchcraft

As the earlier contributions to this series have made clear, by the end of the eighteenth century educated opinion in Europe had virtually ceased to believe in the reality of acts of witchcraft. Such a change made the early modern trials and executions appear to have been a senseless series of atrocities, born of superstition and obscurantism, and that is how they were portrayed by the writers of the Enlightenment. As such, they represented a superb weapon with which to castigate the old order in Church and state. This liberal,- rationalist, discourse became the dominant one in European and American academe until the 1960s the ending of the trials for witchcraft was repeatedly cited as one of the supreme triumphs of reason and science over the ancient evils of humanity. This idea had the potential to deprive liberalism of one of its favourite means of discrediting the confessional state, and invited a response. It was provided resoundingly by the Frenchman Jules Michelet, one of the...

Firth Violet Mary See Dion Fortune

After three years, Fitch returned to civilian life in the United States, working as a technical writer and electronics engineer in Washington, D.C. It was now the 1960s, and contemporary Witchcraft and Paganism were spreading around the country. Fitch was initiated into the Gard-nerian tradition of Witchcraft by Raymond and Rosemary Buckland (see Raymond Buckland) and rose to the rank of high priest. He also was trained in trance channeling by Spiritualist mediums from the Church of All Worlds.

Accused of witchcraft

A member of one of the area's wealthiest family had long before set the stage for resentment. When she plummeted into poverty and despair her neighbors ignored her sudden needi-ness and neglect at the hands of her husband and family. Viewed as an outcast and a burden, over time Clinton became a perfect target for accusations of witchcraft. Although records do not show the specific events leading up to formal charges, it is clear that her former Ipswich neighbors rallied against her (see Witchcraft 1687 The Deposition of Thomas Knowlton against Rachel Clinton in the Primary Sources section). Claiming she had a long-standing reputation of practicing witchcraft, they described bizarre events that had allegedly occurred as a result of her power. For instance, a woman named Mary Fuller, who had been her next door neighbor, stated that she had had an argument with Clinton and as a result a neighbor girl had died. Though it was later revealed that the girl had merely been sleeping, the...

Chapter Consciousness Rites

Though some persons let go of their earlier prejudices and take up the practice of folk magic or Wicca, many of them still cling to quasi-Christian symbolism. They may attend Christian Spiritual churches, or mediate upon the images of Jesus as a crystal while using its magic. The word God (capital G, with its unexpressed concept of male divinity) is frequently used in New Age books. Stores catering to this movement often fail to stock magical texts.

The Weird Ways Of Witchcraft

What the Church has chosen to call Devil Worship or Satanism is merely the worship of those deities that existed before Christianity. The Papal Bull of Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 declared war on all aspects of witchcraft calling it a heresy. There were Black Magicians who made pacts with the devil, who truly believed in the power of evil. The 17th century Italian chronicler of demonology, FrancescoMaria Guazzo, describes eleven steps that the initiate Satanist must go through

Prejudice and other challenges

Members of the Wiccan Church sincerely adhere to a fairly complex set of doctrines relating to the spiritual aspect of their lives, and in doing so they have ultimate concerns in much the same way as followers of some more accepted religions. Their ceremonies and leadership structure, their rather elaborate set of articulated doctrine codified beliefs and teachings , their belief in the concept of another world, and their broad concern for improving the quality of life for others gives them at least some facial similarity to other more widely recognized religions.

Salem Witch Trials and Executions

In desperation, Osborne at first pleaded innocent she then shifted tactics, claiming, as quoted by Rice, she had been haunted by an Indian, all black, which did pinch her in her neck. She went on to imply that Tituba had haunted her for several months, repeatedly ordering her to stop attending church. Osborne thus sealed her own fate by focusing attention on the fact that she frequently missed worship services. When the court asked Osborne's husband and neighbors if she had been to church on Sundays in the past few months, they admitted that she was often absent. In attempting to deflect attention onto Tituba, Osborne inadvertently (accidentally) made herself look like a liar and a co-conspirator.

What happened next

The Council of America Witches disbanded in 1974. The following year the Covenant of the Goddess (CoG) was formed to incorporate hundreds of separate Wiccan covens and was officially recognized as a church in the United States. The CoG is the largest Wiccan organization, representing a variety of belief systems and practices. At the end of the twentieth century Wicca was the eighth largest religion in the United States, ranking with Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other established faiths.

Father God or Mother

The impulse to see, in the dominant Great Mother, an import from the mother-dominated peoples of Asia Minor and the eastern Mediterranean is irresistible. Even today the 'Old Religion' of Italy, maintained and served by the hereditary female witch-priesthood for a 'church membership' not higher socially than the lower middle-class, has but one supreme divinity, the goddess Diana, and one subordinate divinity. Diana's daughter, Araldia the male Horned God of northern Europe having been completely dismissed. Cybele s castration forceps With these highly-decorated bronze forceps, found last century in the Thames near London Bridge, the neophyte priests of Cybele, the Great Idaean Mother of the Gods, were ritually castrated to the service of their divine Mistress. The temple of Cybele -sedes Magna Matris - stood on the northern bank of the Thames, at the entrance to, and to the east of, Roman (timber) London Bridge. The name of the sedes Magna Matris ('Headquarters of the Great Mother)...

Florida Accident Victim Solemnly Swears Out Case Against

The story goes on to say that George Albrecht paid 17.50 for a filing fee and gave the astonished court clerks copies of his claims to hand on to the defendants. These included 32 Lake Worth churches and synagogues lumped together by the plaintiff as God and Company . The pastors of the local churches reacted with shock and some with humor. One of them, The Rev. E.W. Zilch, pastor of Bethel Pentacostal Temple, said If he brings the principal defendant into court, I'll be glad to come and testify for Him. The pastor of the Evangelical Covenant Church, The Rev. James Magnuson, remarked I always thought that the expression 'act of God' in regard to accidents was a misnomer. If this keeps up, people will be suing the churches everytime a tree falls.

The Origins of Witchcraft

Scope Lecture Sixteen begins our long discussion of witchcraft and, more important, the European witch craze. The lecture begins by defining what witchcraft is, its place in the history of the West, and the relationship between magic and religion. The lecture looks at the anthropological explanations for the emergence of witchcraft with special attention to folklore and the survival of pre-Christian beliefs. Tracing the history of witchcraft, the lecture discusses how Christian theologians redefined witchcraft just before the end of the fifteenth century and the important shifts that occurred in the Church's treatment of those accused of witchcraft.

Wicca Invades America

In the 1960's and 70's Murray, Graves, and Gardner found a wide audience in the United States, especially in the growing feminist community. Feminist writers ran with the idea of a pre-Christian matriarchal society and declared the witch trials a women's holocaust. In 1968 an organization called WITCH (Women's International Conspiracy from Hell) penned a manifesto that stated nine million liberated women and witches had been put to death by the Church for practicing the ancient

Sex Sorcery And Sadism

To the Castle of Champtoce and no further. Feelings were so bitter that the Church had to intervene and the Bishop of Nantes asked the Duke of Brittany to arrest Gilles de Retz. Cool at first, the overwhelming evidence, the recitation of his abandoned lust made by Prelati and other accomplices, his ferocious pleasure in the trembling throbbing limbs and glazed eyes of his young victims, his cruel pleasure in stringing them up and then offering comfort and when the victims were crying-trusting, placing their little hands around his neck, suddenly choking them and forcing them to submit to his sadistic sodomic passion, both little boys and girls, the enormity of proven crimes forced him to confess.

Midsummer Summer Solstice

The festival of Lughnasadh (Celtic), or Lammas (Christian), is held on August 1. The word Lughnasadh is associated with the god Lugh, and the festival was held to commemorate his marriage. Lammas is derived from the Old English Mafmoesse, meaning loaf-mass, and was held in celebration of the first loaves baked from the first grain harvested. The loaves were taken to the local church, where they were blessed by priests. The loaves were then distributed among the congregation. Observing this festival ensured an abundance of fruit and grain for the months to come. The first fruit picked or sheaf cut was considered to be sacred to the Old Gods, and was therefore treated in a special manner.

Joan Of Arc And Gilles De Rais

The case of Joan is easily studied, as the documents are accessible. 1 Anatole France has realized that behind Joan there lay some unseen power, which Charles VII feared and from which he unwillingly accepted help. M. France sees in this power a party in the Church, and in his eyes the Church was a house divided against itself. Though agreeing with the view that Joan was the rallying-point of a great and powerful organization, I see in that organization the underlying religion which permeated the lower orders of the people in France as in England that religion which I have set forth in the foregoing chapters. The men-at-arms, drawn from the lower orders, followed without hesitation one whom they believed to have been sent by their God, while the whole army was commanded by Marshal Gilles de Rais, who apparently tried to belong to both religions at once.

Person Performing Whitchcraft And Poisoning In The Wwst Indies

The notion of a pact with demons or with the devil, either explicit or tacit, was for Christian authorities in medieval and early-modern Europe an essential element of most forms of sorcery, and this was one of the central crimes entailed in witchcraft. The roots of the Christian notion of the demonic pact are found in the Bible, chiefly Isaiah 28 15, given in the early-modern King James' Version as, We have made a covenant with death and with hell we are at agreement. The medieval Latin Vulgate actually uses the word pact . . . et cum inferno fecimuspactum. Early church fathers such as Origen (185-254) and Augustine of Hippo (354-430) began to link the performance of sorcery and divination to pacts made with demons. Augustine in particular viewed the entire world in terms of a struggle between demonic and divine power, and he contrasted the evil of demonic magic starkly with the good and salvational power of divine miracle in his famous City of God and other works....

The tragic month of April

The month of April 1692 ushered in an even greater tide of accusations and trials, each case fueling panic, social strife, and hysteria. By the end of April twenty-three more suspects were targeted in Salem Village, along with several others in neighboring towns. On April 3, Samuel Parris read a sermon in which he condemned both Nurse and Corey, who were members of his own congregation. Stressing the Puritan notion of predestination (that one's fate is already sealed), he suggested that the accused witches had been chosen by God, even before birth, to go to Hell, in the Christian concept of eternal punishment after death. Parris went on to say that the worst crime against the church was to serve the devil from within the congregation itself. During the service a parishioner named Sarah Cloyce got up and stormed from the room, slamming the door behind her.

Black Shuck See BLACK animals

Since fertility was vital to prosperity, it was believed that a witch who wanted to harm a neighbor would cast a spell on his generative ability or that of his livelihood (see ILL-wiSHING). If cows didn't calve, if the corn failed to sprout, if the wife miscarried, then the household had been bewitched. The bewitchment could be done with a look (see EVIL EYE) or touch but usually involved incan-tantions and magic powders. According to the church, God allowed the DEVIL to have power over the generative act because the first sin of corruption was sex a serpent tempted Eve therefore, witches the alleged agents of the Devil could use snakes to impair fertility.

Ostara The Spring Equinox

Ostara Magazine

The Mother Goddess in her maiden aspect mated with the ascended Sun God or, in popular folk tradition the Green Man, so that the conceived infant would be reborn as the new Sun at the next winter solstice, thus ensuring the Wheel of the Year continued to turn. In the Christian church, 25 March is the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary when Gabriel told her she was with child.

Sassenach Stray By Ross Nichols

February 2nd is called by the Christian Church The Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary but it is actually derived from the rites of the Roman goddess Februa, who was worshipped with lighted torches. Oimelc, the festival of the moon goddess Bride among the ancient Celts and Gaels, was February 1st. Bride has

New systems replace old ways

Childbearing and for the mysterious functions of their bodies. Many rural healers and witches were unmarried women or widows who did not seem to fit into society, and church leaders became suspicious of the power they wielded in their communities. Some historians believe that misogyny (hatred of women) quickly replaced the old pagan respect for female qualities, as Christians came to associate women's sexuality and freedom with the work of the devil. crete proof of a crime. The goal of the old system was community harmony and justice, and it discouraged the abuse of law and the courts. In contrast, the new system (which would play a major role in the witch craze) was based on Roman law and encouraged the use of heavy penalties, fines, punishments, and even death for those accused of major crimes. The goal was to protect the power and unification of the state and church rather than the small community. Depending on the status of the accused, it was sufficient in many cases for someone...

Methods of obtaining Familiars

'Sometime in the beginning of the last century, two old dames attended the morning service at Llandaewi Brefi Church, and partook of the Holy Communion but instead of eating the sacred bread like other communicants, they kept it in their mouths and went out. Then they walked round the Church outside nine times, and at the ninth time the Evil One came out from the Church wall in the form of a frog, to whom they gave the bread from their mouths, and by doing this wicked thing they were supposed to be selling themselves to Satan and become witches. There was an old man in North Pembrokeshire, who used to say that he obtained the power of bewitching in the following manner The bread of his first Communion he pocketed. He made pretence at eating it first of all, and then put it in his pocket. When he went out from the service there was a dog meeting him by the gate, to which he gave the bread, thus selling his soul to the Devil. Ever after, he possessed the power to bewitch.' 4 In 1556...

The Worshippers

Descriptions of fairies given by eye-witnesses can be found in many accounts in the Middle Ages and slightly later. The sixteenth century was very prolific in such accounts. John Walsh 4 the witch of Netherberry in Dorset, consulted the fairies between the hours of twelve and one at noon and at midnight, and always went among hills for the purpose. Bessie Dunlop 5 in Ayrshire saw eight women and four men, the men were clad in gentlemen's clothing, and the women had all plaids round them and were very seemly-like to see she was informed that these were from the Court of Elfame she had previously received a visit from the Queen of Elfhame though without knowing at the time who her visitor was she described the Queen as a stout woman who came in to her and sat down on the form beside her and asked a drink at her and she gave it. Alesoun Peirsoun 6 in Fifeshire, was convict for haunting and repairing with the good neighbours and Queen of Elphane, and she had many good friends at that...

Of the Ordeal of the Art Magical

Learn of the spirit that goeth with burdens that have not honour, for 'tis the spirit that stoopeth the shoulders and not the weight. Armour is heavy, yet it is a proud burden and a man standeth upright in it. Limiting and constraining any of the senses serves to increase the concentration of another. Shutting the eyes aids the hearing. So the binding of the initiate's hands increases the mental perception, while the scourge increaseth the inner vision. So the initiate goeth through it proudly, like a princess, knowing it but serves to increase her glory. But this can only be done by the aid of another intelligence and in a circle, to prevent the power thus generated being lost. Priests attempt to do the same with their scourgings and mortifications of the flesh. But lacking the aid of bonds and their attention being distracted by their scourging themselves and what little power they do produce being dissipated, as they do not usually work within a circle, it is little wonder that...

Chapter The Sources of Wiccan Ritual

Of the Episcopal and Lutheran churches resemble those of the Roman Catholic Church from which they sprung. For another, the rituals that Aleister Crowley wrote for his branch of the Ordo Templi Orientis an offshoot of the Masons that he turned into a more magically oriented group incorporate phrases and actions found in the older rituals of the Masons, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and the initiation rites of the pre-Crowlean O.T.O. For a third example (which, of course, proves all ), most of the early rituals of the Druid organization I founded, Ar nDraiocht Fein A Druid Fellowship (ADF), included segments from the Reformed Druids of North America (RDNA) rituals I had learned years before some of them, at least as I perform them, still do.

The extent of the witch craze

The war against witches reached its peak between 1580 and 1660, and officially ended on June 17, 1782, when the last execution took place in Switzerland. The hysteria raged mainly in France, Germany, and Switzerland, but also extended throughout western Europe, into pockets of northern and eastern Europe, and eventually to the American colonies in New England. Spain was one of the few countries not associated with the witch-hunts because Spanish officials did not believe in witchcraft as defined by the Malleus. In Spain witches were apparently dealt with by being locked up in convents. It is difficult to establish the number of people who were killed in the anti-witch campaign because many died in jails from torture and starvation and were not recorded in official execution counts. Estimates based on compilations of regional figures throughout Europe range anywhere from 100,000 to 9,000,000. The majority of those killed were not necessarily followers of the old religions but Christian...

Englightenment replaces superstition

Most of the accusers in the Salem trials went on to lead fairly normal lives. Betty Parris, Elizabeth Booth, Sarah Churchill, Mary Walcott, and Mercy Lewis eventually married and had families. Records do not reveal what happened to Abigail Williams, Elizabeth Hubbard, Susannah Sheldon, or Mary Warren. Ann Putnam, Jr., stayed in Salem Village for the rest of her life. Both of her parents died of an unknown infectious disease within months of one another in 1699, leaving Ann in charge of raising her nine younger siblings. In 1706, at age twenty-seven, Ann made a formal apology for her role in the trials when she was admitted as a member of the Salem Village church. (See Putnam's biography entry as well as the full text of her apology in the Primary Sources section.)

Setting the stage for The Burning Times

Between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries Christians came to see paganism as a major threat to the church. By this time the positive and honorable aspects of the old religions had been redefined to appear both destructive and evil. Ironically, witches who were once instrumental in guaranteeing continued fertility, good health, and plentiful harvests were suddenly held responsible for sterility, disease, infant mortality, famine, and blight. One reason for this shift was that the monotheism (belief in one god) of Christianity was in direct opposition to the old notion of multiple gods and natural forces at work in a mysterious universe (polytheism). The nature-based pagan approach to life was displaced by rigid allegiance to the one all-knowing God and the one true religion, Christianity. Now the focus was on life after death the Christian concept of heaven (paradise) and hell (eternal suffering) rather than human existence on Earth. Church leaders declared that any form of worship...

Questions to Consider

views on the Trinity condemned by the Church. nails his ninety-five theses on the door of a church at Wittenberg. Waldensians A twelfth-century heretical movement that preached absolute poverty. Founded by Peter Waldo (Valdes of Lyons), the Waldensians translated the gospel into the vernacular and became a great threat to the Church. Martin Luther. The great Protestant leader was born in 1483, became a priest in 1507 and a professor at Wittenberg the following year, and broke openly with the Church in 1517. His translation of the Bible into German and his positions on questions of dogma opened a rift in Western European Christianity.

Witch Hunts in Puritan New England

The witch trials that took place in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692 and 1693 are remembered today as a tragic chapter in American history. The trials are generally considered to be a unique and isolated flare-up of European superstitions that had been brought to America by a few settlers. Yet a closer look at this era reveals that, from the very beginning, fear of witchcraft was a basic part of New England society and served many complex functions. Although belief in witchcraft was prevalent throughout the American colonies, formal trials and executions occurred only in the Puritan communities of New England, the northeastern part of the present-day United States. The reason was that the Puritans had a unique sense of their mission in America. They were originally members of Protestant groups in England that opposed practices of the Church of England under King James I (1566-1625). (Protestants belong to a religious group that was formed in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church in the...

Tana and Endamone or Diana and Endyinion

I have never seen it observed, but it is true, that Keats in his exquisite poem of Endymion completely departs from or ignores the whole spirit and meaning of the ancient myth, while in this rude witch-song it is minutely developed. The conception is that of a beautiful youth furtively kissed in his slumber by Dian of reputed chastity. The ancient myth is, to begin with, one of darkness and light, or day and night, from which are born the fifty-one (now fifty-two) weeks of the year. This is Diana, the night, and Apollo, the sun, or light in another form. It is expressed as love-making during sleep, which, when it occurs in real life, generally has for active agent some one who, without being absolutely modest, wishes to preserve appearances. The established character of Diana among the Initiated (for which she was bitterly reviled by the Fathers of the Church) was that of a beautiful hypocrite who pursued amours in silent secrecy.

The Charm of the Stones Consecrated to Diana

Here we have again the threatening the deity, just as in Eskimo or other Shamanism, which represents the rudest primitive form of conjuring, the spirits are menaced. A trace of this is to be found among rude Roman Catholics. Thus when St. Bruno, some years ago, at a town in the Romagna, did not listen to the prayers of his devotees for rain, they stuck his image in the mud of the river, head downwards. A rain speedily followed, and the saint was restored in honour to his place in the church.

Lughnassadh The Festival Of The Corn Harvest

This is the festival of the corn harvest, called Lammas or Loafmass, when on 1 August the first loaf is baked from the harvested wheat. It corresponds to the Christian harvest festival when in some churches corn is still offered on the altar, but the concept of offering up the first fruits to the deities in return for abundance throughout the year is a very ancient one.

The Witch Cult In Britain

This is a matter which of late years has exercised the ingenuity of a number of writers. These may be roughly divided into three schools. Firstly, those who take the severely rationalist view that witchcraft was a kind of mass hysteria, arising from psychological causes. Secondly, those who maintain that witchcraft is real, and that it is the worship and service of Satan, in whom its devotees appear to be great believers. This is the attitude taken by that very prolific writer, the late Montague Summers, and his many imitators. Thirdly, that school, headed by anthropologists like Dr. Margaret Murray, which has tried to look at the subject without either superstitious terrors and theological argument on the one hand, or materialistic incredulity on the other. This school of thought maintains that witchcraft is simply the remains of the old pagan religion of Western Europe, dating back to the Stone Age, and that the reason for the Church's persecution of it was that it was a dangerous...

The Forgeries Of The Canon Episcopi And The Malleus Maleficarum

I have previously referred the reader to H. C. Lea's Materials Towards a History of Witchcraft for the full details of this matter however, as that book is not one which is within easy reach of the general reader, and as the matter is of some importance in the story of the persecution of the witch cult, I will give a brief abstract of it here. Lea quotes a large number of relevant documents to show that the earliest teaching of the Church about the witches' Sabbat differed radically from the parade of horrors for which credence was, and is, demanded by orthodox writers. The foundation for this early teaching is a document called the Canon Episcopi, which was accepted as authoritative until the time of the publication of the Malleus Maleficarum in 1486, which finally threw it overboard, after it had been interpreted and re-interpreted until the final sense in which it was taken was almost the opposite of its original sense. Regino (circa A.D. 906) seems to have been the first publisher...

Comments on the Foregoing Texts

Now be it observed, that every leading point which forms the plot or centre of the Vangel, such as that Diana is Queen of the Witches. an associate of Herodias (Aradia) in her relations to sorcery that she bore a child to her brother the Sun (here Lucifer ) that as a moon-goddess she is in some relation to Cain, who dwells as prisoner in the moon, and that the witches of old were people oppressed by feudal lands, the former revenging themselves in every way, and holding orgies to Diana which the Church represented as being the worship of Satan-all of this, I repeat, had been told or written out for me in fragments by Maddalena (not to speak of other authorities), even as it had been chronicled by Horst or Michelet therefore all this is in the present document of minor importance. All of this I expected, but what I did not expect, and what was new to me, was that portion which is given as prose-poetry and which I have rendered in metre or verse. This being traditional, and taken down...

Judges and accusers show minimal guilt

The most emotional plea for forgiveness came from Samuel Sewall (see biography and primary source entries), one of the magistrates (judges). He went a step further than the jurors by Taking the blame and shame of it and asking God to forgive him for his role in the trials. As related in A Delusion of Satan, as Sewall stood in front of the congregation of Old South Church in Boston, Massachusetts, his apology was read aloud by Reverend Samuel Willard. Sewall begged God to spare In the wake of the trials Samuel Parris, minister of the Salem Village church, attempted in vain to clear his name and retain his position in the community. As noted in A Delusion of Satan, he pointed to the role that deep social conflicts had played in the trials I beg, entreat, and beseech you Satan, the Devil . . . may no longer be served by us, by our envy and strifes . . . but that all from this day forward may be covered with the mantle of love and may on all hands forgive each other heartily, sincerely...

From The Wonders of the Invisible World

The New-Englanders are a people of God settled in those, which were once the Devil's territories and it may easily be supposed that the Devil was exceedingly disturbed, when he perceived such a people here accomplishing the promise of old made unto our blessed Jesus, That He should have the utmost parts of the earth for his possession. There was not a greater uproar among Ephesians, when the Gospel was first brought among them, than there was among the powers of the air (after whom those Ephesians walked) when first the silver trumpets of the Gospel here made the joyful sound. The Devil thus irritated immediately tried all sorts of methods to overturn this poor plantation and so much of the church, as was fled into this wilderness, immediately found the serpent cast out of his mouth a flood for the carrying of it away. I believe that never were more satan-ical devices used for the unsettling of any people under the sun, than what have been employed for the extirpation of the vine...

Reverend Green starts healing process

When Samuel Parris was forced to resign as the minister of Salem Village church and leave town in 1697 (see biography entry and box on p. 71), he was replaced by Joseph Green. More sophisticated and accepting than his predecessor, Green immediately tried to heal the community. He preached forgiveness in his sermons and even changed the seating arrangement in the church, forcing former enemies to acknowledge one another. He also brought justice to victims who had been ignored by the courts. In 1703 Green formally reversed Martha Corey's excommunication (forced removal) from the church (see Chapter 4), thereby restoring her reputation and assuring the relatives of other executed people that their loved ones would not be damned to hell (according to the Christian concept of eternal punishment for sins after death). In 1712 he revoked the excommunications of Rebecca Nurse and Giles Corey (see Chapter 4). Although Green's efforts helped the community eventually recover from the devastation...

In the Beginning A Sense of Wonder

Various rituals, recorded (not always correctly), by nervous ecclesiastical and lay note-takers at the witch-trials, consists of words in a language which was, to the organised Fertility Cult, what Old Slavonic is to the Russian Orthodox Church and what Latin, until recently, was to the Church of Rome. In the third place, I shall produce evidence, not so far revealed in any book on Witchcraft, to shew that, whilst Witchcraft was not, after the famous Bull of 1484, as widespread or as powerful as vested ecclesiastical and political interests found it useful to make it out to be, the Old Religion (4) (as I shall often call it in this book) was far more established, far more widespread, until at least the year AD 1400, than the activities of the Inquisition would imply. I shall endeavour to demonstrate that, far from the Black Death's having 'given a boost' to the old Religion (at the expense of the New), the facts rather indicate that the opposite occurred that the freeing of the serfs...

Presides at Salem trials

Under the new charter, church membership could no longer be a requirement for voting, although Congregationalism (a branch of Puritanism organized according to independent church congregations) remained the official church. Sewall was named a councilor (advisor) in the new royal government, a position he held until 1725, when he decided not to seek reelection. Historians note that the loss of the original charter led to widespread anxiety in Massachusetts, resulting in witchcraft hysteria. Puritan officials believed the colony was under an evil spell cast by witches (people, usually women, with supernatural powers) who had signed a compact (agreement) with the devil (the ultimate evil force). Witches were supposedly seeking revenge on particular members of the community. According to the Puritans, the compact empowered a witch to perform such acts as causing the death of a child, making crops fail, preventing cream from being churned into butter, or...

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