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Wicca And The Christian Heritage

What is Wicca Is it witchcraft or Paganism Occultism or esotericism Are Wiccans witches Since it was first publicised in 1954 by Gerald Gardner, Wicca has been associated with magic, spirituality, mysticism, nature religions, secrecy, gnosis, the exotic and the Other. Over the past thirty years, anthropologists, sociologists and historians have defined and explored Wicca within all these contexts, but there has been a tendency to sublimate and negate the role of Christianity in Wicca's historical and contemporary incarnations. Joanne Pearson 'prowls the borderlands of Christianity' to uncover the untold history of Wicca. She argues that Christian traditions are inherent in the development of contemporary Wicca, and makes a groundbreaking analysis of Wicca's relationship with Christianity. Focusing on the accusations which have been levelled against Catholicism, heterodoxy and witchcraft throughout history, Pearson explores the importance of ritual, deviant sexuality and magic in...

What is the truth about Witchcraft today

For centuries, organized religions have perpetuated lies about the ancient practice of Witchcraft. To this day, many misinformed people think that Witches worship Satan, perform human sacrifices, participate in sex orgies, and use drugs. In The Truth About Witchcraft Today, Scott Cunningham puts these common misconceptions to rest by showing that Witches are women and men from all walks of life, cultural backgrounds and religious upbringings. They have found Wicca (Witchcraft) to be the only religion that encourages love for the earth and reveres the Feminine aspect of the Divine the Goddess an element missing in most other religions. Here, then, is an excellent overview of a perennially fascinating subject one that really does tell the truth about Witchcraft (and folk magic) today.

Neopagan Witchcraft the Twigs

The Tree the Complete Book of Saxon Witchcraft, by Raymond Buckland. The book in which the author invented Seax-Wicca, the first tradition of Wicca in which self-initiation was explicitly approved. The Truth about Witchcraft and Wicca A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner, by Scott Cunningham. The first book is an excellent brief introduction to general Wicca, suitable for giving to worried friends and family. The second was the first widely distributed text on Wicca aimed at readers who had no coven The Witches' Goddess The Feminine Principle of Divinity, The Witches' God Lord of the Dance, and A Witches' Bible, by Janet and Stuart Farrar. The first two books contain useful details about multiple deities and how their worship can be incorporated into Wic-can circles. The third is a rebinding of both Eight Sabbats for Witches and The Witches' Way, so it's a good introduction to the early orthodox Traditions of Wicca, with lots of fine ritual ideas. An ABC of Witchcraft Past and...

Modern Pagan Witchcraft

In the history of European witchcraft and magic England traditionally occupies a marginal position. It features but seldom in studies of the subject during the ancient and medieval penods, and while it has abundant records for its share of the early modern witch trials, it remained both geographically and intellectually peripheral to them. It is therefore the more striking that when a historian considers the phenomenon of modern pagan witchcraft, the picture is exacdy reversed. It is England which is the heartland, exporting ideas and practices to the rest of the British Isles and of Europe, and (above all) to North America. Twentieth-century pagan witchcraft, known in its most strongly established form as Wicca, is in fact the only religion which the English can claim to have given to the world. This is the more remarkable in that it is rooted m cultural trends which were themselves pan-European. The purpose of what follows is to identify those trends, to explain how and why they...

Chapter What Wiccans Beliebe

M jlgV Ti full-scale discussion of Wiccan Jjgris& l duotheology, this chapter will give you the highlights and r r i make the subsequent chapters more meaningful. Because Wiccans are Neopagans, whether all of them are willing to admit it or not, much of this is taken from my essay What Neopagans Believe, which I have rewritten many times over the years. A significantly expanded version of that material will be found in Neopaganism A Concise Guide. As I say in that book, Wiccans represent the vast majority of the Neopagan movement, and as such have affected the majority of the beliefs and practices of that movement. In the following, I have listed the beliefs as they are held by most Neopagans and added comments that are specific to Wiccan beliefs and practices. Be warned, however, that these are spiritual movements still very much in their early growth stages, and not all members of these movements may agree completely with any particular one of the beliefs I list. To quote the...

Neopagan Witchcraft Reference Books and Anthologies

The Modern Craft Movement (Witchcraft Today, Book 1), Modern Rites of Passage (Book 2), Shamanism and Witchcraft (Book 3), and Living Between Two Worlds Challenges of the Modern Witch (Book 4) All edited by Chas Clifton. This series of anthologies is excellent, containing essays by both Pagans and non-Pagans of widely varied scholarship. Witchcraft, Satanism & Occult Crime Who's Who & What's What, a Manual of Reference Materials for the Professional Investigator, by the Church of All Worlds' Staff. An inexpensive yet invaluable tool for those concerned about occult crime and whether the neighborhood Pagans might be involved in something terrible. Can be bought from the Church of All Worlds < www.caw.org> . Give one to your local law enforcement agency. The Circle Guide to Pagan Groups, by Circle Sanctuary (see Appendix 6). Lists Wiccan The Law Enforcement Guide To Wicca, by Kerr Cuchulain. A manual written by a Canadian Neopagan police officer for his colleagues. This is the...

Appendix On and Offline Wiccan Resources

> . It has the world's largest existing database of Wiccan and other Neopa-gan contacts, as well as a huge library of articles and essays about Neopagan Witchcraft and other Pagan paths, plus a section designed for the needs of professional journalists. America Online < www.aol.com> has a very lively and active Neopagan community (many of whom are Wiccans), with chat rooms, libraries of text and graphics files, and message boards. Use the Keyword Pagan to access these. There are over 2,500 Wiccan and other Pagan e-lists groups, running from half a dozen members to 1,000+, of wildly varying knowledge at Yahoo Groups < www.yahoogroups.com > . There are over twenty Wiccan and other Pagan communities that can be found on MSN Communities < http communities.msn.com > . These are like the older BBSs of the '80s & '90s. The Aquarian Tabernacle Church has it's website at < www.AquaTabCh.org> . This is one of the largest Wiccan churches in the world, with legal recognition...

Chapter The Religion Of Wicca

Folk magic is but half of what is termed Witchcraft. The other half is the religion known as Wicca. There are at least five major ways in which Wicca differs from other religions. These are Wiccans revere the Goddess and God. Current Western religion, Wiccas feel, is out of balance. Deity is usually referred to as God (as opposed to Goddess). God the Father is a The Wiccans are different. They see nature as a manifestation of the divine. Because of this they argue that a male divinity revered without a female deity is, at best, only half effective. Both sexes exist in nature. If nature is a manifestation of divinity, then divinity also manifests in male and female forms. Hence modern Wicca is usually (but not always) centered around reverence of the Goddess and God. Both-not one, not the other. So Wicca is a religion built around worship of these two deities, the Goddess and the God. They are often thought to be twin energies, or nonphysical manifestations of the power that was...

Chapter II Witchcraft in the postModern World

We even have some folks attempting to create forms of Neoshamanic Witchcraft, whether inspired by Zell's theory (mentioned in Chapter 3) or else just using the currently vague New Age concepts of shamanism combined with Wicca. It's ironic that, while authentic shamanism is about as nitty-gritty and practical as a magical system can get, the modern (Neo-)Shamanic Witches tend to be the fluffiest of fluffy Defining who is or isn't a real member of these communities for statistical purposes is a complex task that changes the final tallies dramatically (see my Neopagan-ism A Concise Guide for details on the difficulties). Nonetheless, our numbers will only grow in the coming decades, as our population seems (to us long-time observers) to have doubled in size every four or five years. Considering the many popular books about Wicca and Goddess Worship still filling the bookstore shelves long after the fad was supposed to be over, I see no sign of this growth slowing down. The recent arrival...

Neopagan Witchcraft the Rite Stuff

Real Magic An Introductory Treatise on the Basic Principles of Yellow Magic, by Isaac Bonewits. Though somewhat dated, this is the book that thousands of Wiccan teachers have used to train their students for thirty years. The Healing Craft Healing Practices for Witches and Pagans, by Janet and Stuart Farrar and Gavin Bone. The first Wiccan book I've seen specifically focused on the techniques and theories of healing body, mind and spirit. An excellent resource. The Witch's Magical Handbook and Tan-tric Yoga The Royal Path to Raising Kundalini Power, by Gavin and Yvonne Frost. The first is a compendium of their unusual and fascinating approach to practical magic. For those who want to try actually doing Witchcraft as Gardner originally intended it to be done, the second book is another of the Frosts' clearheaded guides to an overly mystified topic. Advanced Wicca Exploring Deeper Levels of Spiritual Skills and Masterful Magick and The Wiccan Book of Ceremonies and Rituals, both by...

Witchcraft Within Covens

A coven is a group of members of a unit of witchcraft and, in fact, can number anything from two to 13, or even more. The number 13 is traditionally designated by the 13 moon cycles that make up one year, and 13 is the number of the Goddess (hence it became unlucky under Christian influence). Gardenerian covens generally number 13. Some covens are affiliated formally or informally to specific traditions, but they increasingly unite for organisational as well as legal and political strength, particularly in Australia and parts of the USA. On-line covens are also springing up and they are an excellent way for solitary practitioners to gain support and information. Reliable, bona fide covens will offer the same safeguards as any ordinary coven (see page 306), but of course the normal restraints you should show on contacting any Internet site will apply. The beginning of the path to learning about Wicca within a formal coven is usually marked by a dedication. Initiation, after a year and...

American Feminist Witchcraft

There is no doubt that the USA had its own indigenous pagan revival indeed, it produced the first self-conscious modern pagan religion, the Church of Aphrodite, established in Long Island m 1938 (Adler, 1986 233-6). From the 1930s at latest, also, it contained groups of witches working initiatory traditions, although their beliefs and rites are now very hard to reconstruct because they were later heavily overlaid by those of Wicca, coming m from England (Adler, 1986 67-9 Kelly, 1991 23-6). All the English branches of the religion arrived there in the 1960s and 1970s, but more important still were the books of Murray and Gardner, which were read by people trained m folk magic imported into America A different sort of current in American witchcraft arose in the late 1960s, and derived from the simple fact that the figure of the witch is one of the very few images of independent female power which Western civilization has offered to modernity. As such it had to be exploited by feminism,...

The Goddess And God Of Modern Paganism

Fane Eyre came out m 1847, and in that decade another celebrated wnter made the union of moon-goddess with nature-goddess, when Robert Browning wrote his poem 'Artemis Prologizes'- The next stage in the evolution of the image was to eliminate the creator god, leaving the composite goddess as the single mighty source of all being. Swinburne cook this m 1867, giving resounding voice to this deity under the name of a Germanic earth-goddess, in his poem 'Hertha There the mighty creatnx of later feminist paganism appeared fully formed. The precise form which she was to take m Wicca, however, was yet to appear, and did so through a route which although profoundly influenced by creative literature was qualitatively different from it academic history and archaeology. By the Edwardian period, therefore, English literary culture had long been used to a broad notion that the divine feminine should be related to the mght sky and to the natural world. By then, also, this was being associated with...

Introduction to Wiccan Theology and Philosophy

Wicca is unique among modern religions in that it has a common structure--the rituals and essential concepts that are used throughout most traditions--but it is left to each individual (or group of practitioners) to choose how those concepts are best expressed in his her own practice. Phyllis Curott calls Wicca the jazz of religion it has many of the same melodies as other faiths, and its goal is the same (creating harmony with Deity), but there is room for improvisation, evolution, and diversity. Some Wiccans, the extreme eclectics, play fast and loose with traditional ideas, claiming that whatever works for the individual is appropriate, and that Wiccans steal from the best. However, much like music, before you can compose you must first learn how to play. There are several ideas and practices common to most Wiccan practitioners that form the basis of our religion--once you have explored these ideas you can begin to make them your own, and write a symphony of the sacred that brings...

Neopagan Witchcraft the NeW Seeds

The Family Wicca Book The Craft for Parents & Children, by Ashleen O'Gaea. Down to earth advice on sharing the Wiccan religion with your children, parents, and other family members, whether you are an experienced or brand new Wiccan. Coming in October 2002 Raising Witches Teaching the Pagan Faith to Children. Teen Witch Wicca for a New Generation, by Silver RavenWolf. Rather than bemoaning the current flood of teenagers interested in the Craft, the author prefers to empower them In this best-selling title, she tells teens and their parents what they want and need to know about Wicca.

The Philosophy Of Witchcraft

The Craft is a religion of love and joy. It is not full of the gloom of Christianity, with its ideas of original sin, with salvation and happiness possible only in the afterlife. The music of Witchcraft is joyful and lively, again contrasting with the dirge-like hymns of Christianity. Why is this Why are Wiccans more content more warm and happy Much of it has to do with their empathy with nature. Early people lived hand-in-hand with nature through necessity. They were a part of nature, not separate from it. An animal was a brother or a sister, as was a tree. Wo Man tended the fields and in return received food for the table. Sure, s he killed animals for food. But then many animals kill other animals in order to eat. In other words, Woman and Man were a part of the natural order of things, not separate from it. Not above it. Modern Wo Man has lost much, if not all, of that closeness. Civilization has cut them off. But not so the Witch Even today, in this mechanized,...

Chapter The Sources of Wiccan Ritual

Egardless of the conflicting historical claims about whether there was ever a real coven into which Gardner was initiated, it is very clear from his own notes that he could have created the root liturgy of what was to become known as Wicca from available published sources and his own experiences in other Western occult organizations (books from several of which are known to have been in his personal library). I have studied the first draft materials found in Gardner's Ye Bok (see Chapter 9), which he eventually developed into the first Book of Shadows. There is simply nothing within its pages that can be demonstrated to be a remnant of a surviving underground British Paleopagan religion. Whatever their origins, the first versions of the Wiccan rituals (especially those for the holidays) were extremely sparse, being usually only a page or two of text. Following Gardner's advice that it is ever better to do too much ritual than too little, the members of his new religion added materials...

Appendix Principles of Wiccan Belief

This is the document mentioned in Chapter 9 as having been the first attempt to synthesize a common set of beliefs for American Wiccans. While the organization behind it lasted only a few years, this statement has served as a Touchstone for many Wiccans ever since. e are not bound by traditions from other times and other cultures, and owe no allegiance to any person or power greater than the Divinity manifest through our own being. As American Witches, we welcome and respect all life-affirming teachings and traditions, and seek to learn from all and to share our learning. We do not wish to open ourselves to the destruction of Wicca by those on self-serving power trips, or to philosophies and practices contradictory to these principles. In seeking to exclude those whose ways are contradictory to ours, we do not want to deny participation with us to any who are sincerely interested in our knowledge and beliefs, regardless of race, color, sex, age, national or cultural origins, or sexual...

Warnings and Ethics in Wiccan Spellcraft

Hindu teachings call it the yama. Buddhism calls it the sila. Judaism calls it the Law of Moses. Christianity call it the Sermon on the Mount and Wicca calls it the Rede. Each is a collection of social ethics and guidelines that partially define the religion to which it belongs. This is one of the greatest reasons for the recent swell of the Wiccan community. The one ethic that our community seems to teach contains only eight words, An ye harm none do what ye will. You can see how such a liberal ethic would appeal to a wider range of people. But the simplicity of this ethic is deceptive. One of the reasons the man in the previous paragraph found With the possible exception of sociopaths, we all want to feel that way. A simplistic interpretation of the Wiccan Rede does not allow this feeling unless one is content to go through life without incident, challenge, or accomplishment. If Wicca is truly a nature-based religion, the Wiccan Rede could not possibly instruct that we may not cause...

Neopagan Witchcraft Some Flo Wers

Deepening Witchcraft Advancing Skills and Knowledge, by Grey Cat. It's difficult to know what category to put this one in An experienced Witch, Druid, and all-around troublemaker, Grey Cat provides a workbook study guide history for those Wiccan priests and priestesses ready to get serious about professionalism and competency in their Craft. When you don't know where to go to get the skills you need to serve your community, dig out this book, but be prepared like my own writing, Grey Cat's is guaranteed to have something to offend nearly everybody Wiccan Warrior Walking a Spiritual Path in a Sometimes Hostile World, by Kerr Cu-chulain. A Pagan cop talks about what being a warrior means to him. Living Wicca A Further Guide for the Solitary Practitioner, by Scott Cunningham. A sequel to his Wicca A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner, this takes the individual Wiccan deeper into the Craft. Book of Shadows A Modern Woman's Journey into the Wisdom of Witchcraft and the Magic of the...

Chapter Varieties of Wiccan Ritual

Cholars in the field of religious studies often call Wicca and other varieties of Neopaganism magical religions. By this they mean to indicate faiths in which the participants are encouraged and expected to actively perform their own magical or miraculous deeds, rather than passively waiting for some spiritual force to do it for them. Down through the ages the core meaning of witch has been someone who could do magic. Yet what exactly do we mean by that With all that out of the way, let's look at the various sorts of magical and religious rituals that exist, all of which are done by some Wiccans on different occasions. Most Wiccans tend to describe their rituals as being initiations, sabbats (holy day celebrations that are primarily theurgical), or esbats (monthly working rituals that are mostly thaumaturgical). Gerald Gardner took the second and third terms from the writings of the Renaissance witch-hunters. There are, however, more useful terms. Rites of passage are ones in which...

Wiccan Rituals And Ethics

Wiccans believe in polarity rather than a single godhead, both in magick and in life. Evil is therefore not a separate demonic force to be eradicated, and the darker aspects of life emanate as a result of alienation from the natural order of things. However, even those things that are bad can act as catalysts for change death and endings are as much part of the cycle of life as are birth and beginnings. Dark and light, night and day, positive and negative, destruction and creation are two sides of the same coin, a principle that finds expression in Eastern Taoism and underpins the ancient Chinese Ching (The Book of Changes), often used for divination. Negativity can be transformed into healing energies through positive ritual. The Goddess is the source of all creation, from whom, in the original virgin birth, her son-consort, the Horned God, came. The Horned God and the Goddess are the creative male and female principles that act and react, not in opposition to each other, but as...

Witchcraft In Modern Times

By the late twentieth century in the USA, witchcraft had been recognised as a valid religion by the American Supreme Court and accepted by the American army, but other countries, including the UK, are not so tolerant. What is more, in many lands, especially among smaller communities, misunderstanding and prejudice still persist. In the UK, for example, Wiccans who practise openly and have children are sometimes regarded with suspicion by some health professionals.

The Principles of Wiccan Belief

The Council of American Witches finds it necessary to define modern Witchcraft in terms of the American experience and needs. It is in this spirit of welcome and cooperation that we adopt these few principles of Wiccan belief. In seeking to be inclusive, we do not wish to open ourselves to the destruction of our group by those self-serving power trips, or to philosophies and practices contradictory to those principles. In seeking to exclude those whose ways are contradictory to ours, we do not want to deny participation with us to any who are sincerely interested in our knowledge and beliefs, regardless of race, color, sex, age, national or cultural origins or sexual preference. . . . We see religion, magick, and wisdom-in-living as being united in the way one views the world and lives within it a worldview and phi-losophy-of-life which we identify as Witchcraft, the Wiccan Way. Neo-Paganism has once again made it acceptable to celebrate Spring with dancing around the May pole.

Contemporary Witchcraft

A standard book on neo-paganism highlights Samhain (Halloween) as one of the greater sabbats for the celebration of witchcraft.28 Some witches even request a day off from work for their special day while others have actually sought to have schools closed to commemorate their great sabbat. Most satanic groups consider Halloween a special night as reflected in the view that Halloween became the only day of the year in which it was believed that the devil could be invoked for help in finding out about future marriages, health, deaths, crops, and what was to happen in the near year. Satanism and witchcraft share many commonalities. Divergent emphases and differences in ritual cannot obscure the commonalities in source of power, psychic development, anti-Christian worldview, use of spirits, use of evil, etc. There is genuine power in the occult (Isa 47 9), but it's demonic power (Mt 24 24 Acts 8 7 13 6-11 16 16-19 19 18-20 2 Cor 4 4 Eph 6 7-11, 22 2 Tim 3 8). Any serious study of Biblical...

Witchcraft and Sorcery

In the extension of its power as a religious, social and political force, the church had long opposed pagan practices and sORCERY, especially sacrifices to DEMONs. From the 8th century to about the 12th century, the church sought to wipe out paganism. By the 13th century, there was more tolerance, and the church itself even acquired an aura of magical power. Practices of alchemy, MAGIC, sorcery, divination and necromancy were widespread, even in the church. John XXII was well aware of this activity and was a believer himself, using magical talismans for protection. A necromantic plot of sympathetic magic was directed at him and his cardinals. The plot failed, but the pope responded by turning the Inquisition against sorcery. In the 14th century, the association between sorcery and heresy took on new dimensions, bringing sorcery and witchcraft into the Inquisition. But nearly 200 years passed before the essential elements of witchcraft as heresy solidified the Devil's PACT, sABBATs,...

The Origins of Witchcraft

Scope Lecture Sixteen begins our long discussion of witchcraft and, more important, the European witch craze. The lecture begins by defining what witchcraft is, its place in the history of the West, and the relationship between magic and religion. The lecture looks at the anthropological explanations for the emergence of witchcraft with special attention to folklore and the survival of pre-Christian beliefs. Tracing the history of witchcraft, the lecture discusses how Christian theologians redefined witchcraft just before the end of the fifteenth century and the important shifts that occurred in the Church's treatment of those accused of witchcraft.

Witchcraft And Magic In Europe

The roots of European witchcraft and magic lie in Hebrew and other ancient Near Eastern cultures and in the Celtic, Nordic, and Germanic traditions of the continent. For two millennia, European folklore and ritual have been imbued with the belief in the supernatural, yielding a rich trove of histories and images. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe combines traditional approaches of political, legal, and social historians with a critical synthesis of cultural anthropology, historical psychology, and gender studies. The series provides a modern, scholarly survey of the supernatural beliefs of Europeans from ancient times to the present day. Each volume of this ambitious series contains the work of distinguished scholars chosen for their expertise in a particular era or region. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe Biblical and Pagan Societies Witchcraft and Magic m Europe Ancient Greece and Rome Witchcraft and Magic m Europe The Middle Ages Witchcraft and Magic in Europe The Period of the Witch...

The Encyclopedia of Witches Witchcraft and Wicca

Witchcraft as a religion was born in Britain after World War II and came out of the closet when the anti-witchcraft laws there were repealed in 1953. It is argued that Gerald B. Gardner, the man who more or less invented the religion, should have chosen another term besides witchcraft for the mix of pagan, ceremonial magic and occult material he assembled. Perhaps witchcraft sounded secretive, exotic and forbidden. It certainly struck the right chord with the public, who suddenly could not get enough of witches. Gardner may not have envisioned a worldwide religious movement, but that is what unfolded, first with the export of Witchcraft to the United States, Canada and Europe, and then around the world. The Gardner tradition, as it became known, quickly mutated into offshoots. A spiritual tradition that reinvented pagan deities and rituals, combined with folk magic and ceremonial magic, proved to be what many people wanted. Alienated by the dry, crusty rituals and somber dogma of...

Inside Cover Blurb The Roots of Witchcraft

'It may well be asked Why yet another book on Witchcraft I shall content myself with giving the three principal reasons which persuaded me to write this book. 'In the first place, I am not satisfied that any books on Witchcraft have clearly denned Witchcraft or have made sufficiently clear the essential distinction between Witchcraft and Diabolism. ' In the second place I am concerned with the origins of the cult more particularly with the geographical situation of the region from which this ancient faith spread over Europe. ' In the third place, I shall produce evidence to shew that, whilst Witchcraft was not, after 1948, as widespread or as powerful as vested ecclesiastical and political interests found it useful to make it out to be, the Old Religion was far more established, far more widespread, until at least the year AD 1400, than the activities of the Inquisition would imply. ' I shall point out that the modern highly-publicised revival of Witchcraft is a non-fact that...

Magic in Contemporary Witchcraft

Contemporary Witchcraft magic is a blend of theurgy and goetia. It contains elements of folk magic, ceremonial magic and sex magic. (Some Witches also have incorporated non-Western magical elements into their practices.) The Witch works within a magic circle and uses four primary magical tools, which correspond to the ELEMENTS the athame (or sword) fire the pentacle earth the chalice water and the wand air. In addition, the Witch uses a censer for the burning of incense and, in most practices, a scourge and cords for tying knots (see WITCHES' TOOLS). Like ceremonial magic tools, the Witch's tools ideally are handmade or purchased new, inscribed with magic SIGILS or runes and consecrated in the four elements (water, candle flame, incense and salt). The Witch invokes the forces of nature, the elements and the elemental spirits that rule the elements (see ELEMENTALS) and appeals to the many faces of the GODDESS and HORNED GOD. Most Witches believe in working with benevolent beings and...

See African witchcraft

The downfall of Fian was brought about by a young servant girl named Gillis Duncan, whose gift for natural HEALING was suspected by her master as the Devil's MAGIC. Under TORTuRE, she accused several persons of witchcraft, including Fian (see NORTH Berwick WitchEs). Fian, who had a reputation as a conjurer, was arrested on December 20, 1590, and charged with 20 counts of witchcraft and high treason. John Fian and his coven fly widdershins around the church (FROM F ARMYTAGE IN SIR WALTER SCOTT'S letters on demonol-ogy and witchcraft COURTESY MARY EVANS PICTURE LIBRARY) John Fian and his coven fly widdershins around the church (FROM F ARMYTAGE IN SIR WALTER SCOTT'S letters on demonol-ogy and witchcraft COURTESY MARY EVANS PICTURE LIBRARY)

The Tools Of Witchcraft

How can you use the powers of witchcraft for yourself Does it mean a dangerous involvement with covens, warlocks, psychics, familiars, fortune tellers and the spirit world Most of these questions stem from popular misconceptions of witchcraft. Real witchcraft can be as sensible as a blue-chip stock investment, and often a lot less complicated. Witches aren't creatures of a dark, shadowy world. A modern witch is more likely to be a swinger in mini or mink. To practise witchcraft, you don't have to join your local sex orgy club. There are witches who argue that total abstinence from, sex is better for casting spells. Others who practise witchcraft believe an orgy is necessary. They argue that right before the sex act there is special energy in the atmosphere. That may be true, but how long can you sustain that high state of energy Not long. You can concentrate on witchcraft, or painting, medicine or book-keeping better when you're not distracted by sexual tension. The only connection...

Some Remarks On Witchcraft In Ireland

IT is said, though we cannot vouch for the accuracy of the statement, that in a certain book on the natural history of Ireland there occurs a remarkable and oft-quoted chapter on Snakes--the said chapter consisting of the words, There are no snakes in Ireland. In the opinion of most people at the present day a book on Witchcraft in Ireland would be of equal length and similarly worded, except for the inclusion of the Kyteler case in the town of Kilkenny in the first half of the fourteenth century. For, with the exception of that classic incident, modern writers never found a home in Ireland as it did elsewhere. For example, the article on Witchcraft in the latest edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica mentions England and Scotland, then passes on to the Continent, and altogether ignores this country and this is, in general, the attitude adopted by writers on the subject. In view of this it seems very strange that no one has attempted to show why the Green Isle was so especially...

Witchcraft for All

They do dabble in spells and chants, burning candles and employing powerful processes, but once the mystery is stripped away, there is nothing much more strange connected with witchcraft than the mysteries of love and religion. In fact, when lovers light candles for dinner, and when churchgoers light candles in prayer, they invoke a force that witches have always known to be beneficial.

Chapter Gerald Gardner Creates Wicca

J 8ra i n 1938, a retired British civil servant, amateur anthropologist, E yrl and Freemason named Gerald Gardner met the members of the R o si crucian Fellowship of Cro-tona and their Rosicrucian Theatre. The Fellowship had started as a Co-Masonic lodge from the mixed gender form of Freemasonry founded in the 1920s by Annie Besant, well known as an early Theosophical leader. But inside the Fellowship there supposedly existed an inner circle, this one calling itself the New Forest Coven and claiming to be a group of Fam-Trad Witches who had kept The Old Religion of Witchcraft alive. .three experimental groups practicing Theosophy, Rosicrucian magic, and reconstructed witchcraft according to the theories of Margaret Murray. It was the latter group that Gerald joined, and in which he found Gerald admitted that the group's membership consisted largely of middle class intellectuals with a large element of ex-colonial administrators like him. And he said its rituals were 'sketchy.' Where...

Mesopagan Witchcraft the Seeds

The Golden Bough, by James Frazer (I prefer the Third Edition). One of the earliest and most influential works in the field of comparative mythology, at least as far as the English-speaking world was concerned. By the 1930s, most of his theories and interpretations were no longer accepted by social scientists, yet many of his core ideas became and remain a part, not just of Neo-pagan Witchcraft, but also of Western culture as a whole during the early part of the twentieth century. The White Goddess A Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth, by Robert Graves. While the history, comparative mythology, and Celtic Studies in this book are worthless, this book was one of the major sources of ideas for what was to become Mesopagan, then Neopagan Witchcraft. Unlike most of his other works, therefore, I can recommend it solely as an historical curiosity.

Byzantine distinctions of the varieties of magic Sorcery [goetea magic [magea Sorcery the derivation of the term

Term witchcraft poisoning is used whenever some deadly drug is made into a po THE NAME MAGOUSAIOI IS ITSELF DERIVED from the Semitic version of makus. The Medes and Persians are presented as the inventors of all varieties alike of magic, the distinctions between which are overschematic and not borne out by ancient usage. The Suda seems to read pharmakeia as signifying poisoning almost to the exclusion of witchcraft, while the claim that mageia was only used for good magic does not survive casual scrutiny. Nor was the term goeteia, as used in ancient sources, confined to the raising of the dead, but the Suda is in fact right about the etymology. So the goes-sorcerer was indeed in origin likely to have been concerned with the manipulation of the ghosts of the dead through wailing, be this for purposes of laying or raising or both. For uses of the goet- root in particular association with the manipulation of the dead, see 15, 36.

Accused of witchcraft

A member of one of the area's wealthiest family had long before set the stage for resentment. When she plummeted into poverty and despair her neighbors ignored her sudden needi-ness and neglect at the hands of her husband and family. Viewed as an outcast and a burden, over time Clinton became a perfect target for accusations of witchcraft. Although records do not show the specific events leading up to formal charges, it is clear that her former Ipswich neighbors rallied against her (see Witchcraft 1687 The Deposition of Thomas Knowlton against Rachel Clinton in the Primary Sources section). Claiming she had a long-standing reputation of practicing witchcraft, they described bizarre events that had allegedly occurred as a result of her power. For instance, a woman named Mary Fuller, who had been her next door neighbor, stated that she had had an argument with Clinton and as a result a neighbor girl had died. Though it was later revealed that the girl had merely been sleeping, the...

The Myth Of Pagan Witchcraft

As the earlier contributions to this series have made clear, by the end of the eighteenth century educated opinion in Europe had virtually ceased to believe in the reality of acts of witchcraft. Such a change made the early modern trials and executions appear to have been a senseless series of atrocities, born of superstition and obscurantism, and that is how they were portrayed by the writers of the Enlightenment. As such, they represented a superb weapon with which to castigate the old order in Church and state. This liberal,- rationalist, discourse became the dominant one in European and American academe until the 1960s the ending of the trials for witchcraft was repeatedly cited as one of the supreme triumphs of reason and science over the ancient evils of humanity. triais was taken from pamphlets. This did not inhibit him at all. In 1862 he brought out La Sorci re, a best-seller which asserted that, the pagan religion of the witches had been the repository of popular liberties...

Psychotherapeutic Witchcraft

Modern witchcraft has borrowed the techniques of psychoanalysis, applied and has affected remarkable cures combining the elements of psychiatry, Catholic exorcism and mental witchcraft. Here is one of them Suppose you're an atheist or an agnostic. You don't believe in Witchcraft, an afterlife, mysticism, or anything dealing with the occult. To you it's all superstitious foolishness. Taking it from your own point of view and since you pride yourself on your rationality, then you have an obligation to be rational even concerning those things which you dislike or reject. You are subject to the same hurts, heartaches, injustices, influences and disappointments as anyone else. And if you have not resolved a psychological conflict, a deep-rooted resentment, towards someone in this life you are just as controlled by the person you hate as the God-believer. You especially, since you don't believe in another life after the grave, then you can't possibly have any guilts about mentally killing a...

The Stone Age Origins Of Witchcraft

When you begin to examine the origin of witchcraft, it is like excavating one of those prehistoric caves in France which are still occupied. A few inches down you find a copper coin of Napoleon a few inches further you find those of various French kings, then mediaeval pottery a little lower Gallo-Roman remains and those of the Bronze Age, then beautifully polished stone axes of the New Stone Age then rougher and more primitive work of the Old Stone Age and these all serve to form the floor of this dwelling, as the people who made them were the ancestors of the people who live there to-day. So while I believe that we find the origin of witchcraft in the primitive hunting magic of the Old Stone Age people, one must try to see what different types of people have influenced it through the ages.

Witchcraft What Its Really Like

Witchcraft has survived through the ages with astounding vitality because man's need to coerce destiny and subdue the fear within has never subsided. The art of enchantment attempts to deceive, cajole, and otherwise disturb natural inclinations. Children, politicians, actors and women in love have much in common with sorcerers who, with bits of colours, attitudes and words, weave spells. Whether it is considered superstition or lore, witchcraft comes to us as a gift from the past. But nothing that lives is safe from Time, so that witchcraft, like a story of an ancient battle told and retold through the ages, is tainted by exaggeration and twisted by falsehood as it is handed down through the years. Originally witches were involved in teaching, guiding and healing - all of the highly respected arts. Their practices were associated with all the vital phases of man health, wealth and love. In later years, through fear and ignorance, the stamp of evil was placed upon those who possessed...

The Nature Of Modern Pagan Witchcraft

The pleasing rhythms and rhetorical flourishes of narrative history, even narrative in which sections of analysis are embedded, can always neglect a great deal it should be obvious that the one above is limited by being, at least until the very end, a view from the outside looking in, and from the top looking down. Other perspectives would produce very different emphases, though perhaps not a different story. What the treatment most obviously fails to convey, however, is more than a hint of the qualitative nature of modern pagan witchcraft, and this is an important enough aspect to deserve consideration now, in conclusion. I have to date worked with 20 British covens, almost three times the number observed by Tanya Luhrmann, the only other academic to publish m the field hitherto. They represent between them Gardnenan, Alexandrian and Traditional varieties (the tradition in some of the latter certainly being the old and honourable one of DIY). To most of these I was an occasional,...

The Weird Ways Of Witchcraft

What the Church has chosen to call Devil Worship or Satanism is merely the worship of those deities that existed before Christianity. The Papal Bull of Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 declared war on all aspects of witchcraft calling it a heresy. There were Black Magicians who made pacts with the devil, who truly believed in the power of evil. The 17th century Italian chronicler of demonology, FrancescoMaria Guazzo, describes eleven steps that the initiate Satanist must go through

Teaching Witchcraft At Moscow U

Training in the arts of witchcraft was given to two hundred African students at the University of Moscow in the winter of 1960, according to testimony furnished to the. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, headed by Senator Thomas J. Dodd (D., Conn.). That training, the Senate investigators claim, may explain some of the shocking stories of murder and torture reported from the Congo in recent years.

Popular Witchcraft And Magic

Popular magic and witchcraft have been a major theme of this senes, and their history in modern Europe is treated in another part of this volume it is necessary here only to look at those few aspects of the subject in England which have a direct bearing upon the ongms of modern pagan witchcraft. The first is the very large amount of data, most collected by folklorists between 1870 and 1930. Although none was gained from an actual practitioner, there is plenty to reflect the experience of clients, and as the process of collecting continued, the people who supplied the information were recorded increasingly in their own idiom. There can have been very few aspects of the activities of self-professed or suspected workers of magic which went wholly unobserved. This all makes the contrast with England the more striking. There families which had a generally disreputable local reputation were sometimes suspected of witchcraft as well a well-recorded example is the Harts at Latchingdon in...

The Kyteler Case And Its Surroundings Of Sorcery And Heresymichael Scotthe Fourth Earl Of Desmondjames I And The Irish

Are best qualified to give their opinion on the matter have assured the writer that to the best of their belief no entries with respect to trials for sorcery or witchcraft can be found in the various old Rolls preserved in the Dublin Record Office. But when the story is considered with reference to the following facts it takes on a different signification. On the 29th of September 1317 (Wright says 1320), Bishop de Ledrede held his first Synod, at which several canons were passed, one of which seems in some degree introductory to the events detailed in the preceding chapter. In it he speaks of a certain new and pestilential sect in our parts, differing from all the faithful in the world, filled with a devilish spirit, more inhuman than heathens or Jews, who pursue the priests and bishops of the Most High God equally in life and death, by spoiling and rending the patrimony of Christ in the diocese of Ossory, and who utter grievous threats against the bishops and their ministers...

History Of Witchcraft

S'efforce de paruenir k quel que chose. (u A sorcerer is one who by commerce with the Devil has a full intention of attaining his own ends 5) With these words the profoundly erudite jurisconsult Jean Rodin, one of the acutest and most strictly impartial minds of his age, opens his famous De la Demonomanie des Sorciers,1 and it would be, I imagine, hardly possible to discover a more concise, exact, comprehensive, and intelligent definition of a Witch, The whole tremendous subject of Witchcraft, especially as revealed in its multifold and remarkable manifestations throughout every district of Southern and Western Europe from the middle of the thirteenth until the dawn of the eighteenth century has it would seem in recent times seldom, if ever, been candidly and fairly examined, The only sound sources of information are the contemporary records the meticulously detailed legal reports of the actual trials the vast mass of pamphlets which give eye-witnessed accounts of individual witches...

The Emergence Of Witchcraft And The Age Of The European Witchhunts

In the early 15 th century, the fully developed idea of European witchcraft of witches as demonic sorcerers who worshiped the devil and formed a vast, conspiratorial, diabolic cult dedicated to the destruction of the Christian world began to emerge. Especially in lands in and around the western Alps, where some of the first true witch-hunts took place, the number of trials involving charges of harmful and maleficent sorcery increased significantly. In addition, even when the initial accusations might still focus only on traditional aspects of maleficium, judicial authorities increasingly began interjecting their own notions of diabolism and demonic conspiracy into the trials. The decade of the 1430s seems to have been a critical turning point. Within only a few years, a number of treatises and other learned accounts describing witchcraft were written. While these accounts all differed from one another in various ways, they all described witchcraft not just in terms of demonic...

I Simple Wiccan Rites

The answer lies in simplified Wiccan rites. In certain circumstances, a magical working (such as folk magic) may be more appropriate. For strictly spiritual occasions, even less complex rituals can produce powerful changes of consciousness and satisfying connection with the Goddess and God. Ritual tools (athame, wand, cup, censer, incense, water and salt) are assistants to ritual. They aren't necessary, but when we're beginning to learn Wicca they're of invaluable help in creating ritual consciousness, defining and purifying sacred space, and invoking the Goddess and God. Once we've mastered the basics, such tools are always welcomed, but aren't necessary. Simplified ritual consists, as you might have guessed, of rites performed with a minimum of tools and ritual movements. Then too, I've performed ritual with only the tools of nature, whether I was indoors or out. The earth beneath me the water gushing before me the air and the fiery force of the sun above. I've most often relied...

Neo Paganism recognized as religion

By the 1970s numerous covens and spiritual groups were independently reviving rituals and beliefs based on ancient documents or rein-terpretations of myths. Many Neo-Paganists called themselves Wiccans. In 1975 the Covenant of the Goddess (CoG) was formed to incorporate hundreds of separate Wiccan covens and was officially recognized as a church in the United States. The CoG is the largest Wiccan organization, representing a variety of belief systems and practices. Its acceptance by official organizations such as the Internal Revenue Service helped to integrate Wiccans into mainstream American society. At the end of the twentieth century Wicca was the eighth largest religion in the United States, ranking with Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other established faiths. This fact is not generally known because many Wiccans observe their rituals in small groups, or even in secret, fearing that they will be attacked as Satan worshipers. Although Wicca and witchcraft are often used...

Female power witchcraft and gender in Elizabethan England

In 1589 Joan Cunny and her two daughters, Avice and Margaret, all from Stisted, Essex, were brought before the Summer Assizes in Chelmsford charged with witchcraft. Undoubtedly the two daughters, by having illegitimate children, lived outside the norms of Elizabethan society a society where it has been estimated that only one to four percent of the population were illegitimate2. Joan and Avice were charged with causing people to die by witchcraft - a crime punishable by the death penalty and Margaret was accused of the lesser offences of two counts of bewitchment. All three women were found guilty Joan and Avice were sentenced to hang and Margaret sentenced to one year (and six appearances in the stocks). Joan was hanged immediately after her trial but Avice had pleaded pregnancy and, as she was found to be pregnant by a jury of matrons (which included Joan Robinson who had been implicated in the St

The Thoughtworld Of Modern Paganism

There were four different languages employed when talking about paganism in nineteenth-century Europe. One assumed it to be a religion of savages, characterized by animal and human sacrifice and a superstitious dread of idols it was used mainly to describe tribal beliefs and some Hindu traditions in the contemporary world, but these were commonly projected back onto prehistoric Europeans. In addition, it was often applied to the temple-based religions of the ancient Near East and North Africa. This language strengthened dunng the century, under the impact of reports generated by increasing European missionary work in the tropics, and evolutionary theory. The latter made it easy to portray this brutish paganism as the lowest form of religion, from which European humanity had ascended as part of a general progression of knowledge and manners, aided (for the pious) by divine revelation. The second language did not conflict with the first, but represented a different emphasis within the...

Church and School of Wicca

2000, it has grown rapidly. CoA publishes a magazine, Witchcraft & Wicca, and holds events in addition to the festival. The CoA assisted the PAGAN Federation with its conference in 1998 and 1999. Witchfest was launched in 2002. Church and School of Wicca Religious and educational institutions founded by GAVIN AND Yvonne Frost, located in Hinton, West Virginia. The Church of Wicca, founded in 1968, is the oldest recognized church of Witchcraft in the United States, achieving federal recognition in 1972. Its teaching arm is the School of Wicca, which offers correspondence courses. History. The Frosts, who were living in St. Louis, Missouri, developed correspondence courses out of their interest and involvement in Witchcraft and began advertising the courses as the School of Wicca. They followed with the founding of the church in 1968. Working with lawyers, Gavin Frost was able to win a Letter of Determination from the Internal Revenue Service giving religious recognition to Wicca and...

Early English Witchcraft Pamphlets and Treatises

45. Scot, R (1584) The discouerie of witchcraft vvherein the lewde dealing of witches and witchmongers is notablie detected, the knauerie of coniurors, the impietie of inchantors, the follie of soothsaiers, the impudent falshood of cousenors, the infidelitie of atheists, the pestilent practises of pythonists, the curiositie of figurecasters, the vanitie of dreamers, the beggerlie art of alcumystrie, the abhomination of idolatrie, the horrible art of poisoning, the vertue and power of naturall magike, and all the conueiances of legierdemaine and iuggling are deciphered and many other things opened, which have long lien hidden, howbeit verie necessarie to be knowne. Heerevnto is added a treatise vpon the nature and substance of spirits and diuels, & c all latelie London 47. Gifford, G (1593) A dialogue concerning witches and witchcraftes In which is laide open how craftely the Diuell deceiueth not onely the witches but many other and so leadeth them awrie into many great errours...

Timeline of Events in Witchcraft in America

1200s Christianity has replaced traditional religions, which Christians call paganism. mid 1600s Ninety-three people are accused of witchcraft fifty in Massachusetts and forty-three in Connecticut. Sixteen are put to death. 1692 Witchcraft accusations begin at the Parris household. June 2 Governor Phipps appoints the Court of Oyer and Terminer to try accused witches. Deputy governor William Stoughton is the chief judge. Bridget Bishop is convicted of witchcraft and sentenced to death. was to accept spectral evidence in witchcraft trials. 1782 The last European witchcraft execution takes place in Switzerland. 1800 Belief in witchcraft lingers in New England. early 1900s The British Order of the Druids revives the practice of Wicca. 1951 Anti-witchcraft laws of 1735 are repealed by the British Parliament. English writer Gerald B. Gardner declares himself a witch. 1960s Neo-paganism spreads throughout North America and Europe. 1975 The Covenant of the Goddess is formed to incorporate...

Thomas Aquinas Witchcraft

ABSALON, ANNA PEDERSDOTTER ( -1590). The victim of perhaps the single most famous witchcraft accusation made in Scandinavia, Anna was the wife of the Lutheran minister and famous scholar Absalon Pedersen Beyer. The charges against her arose mainly out of popular opposition to the attempts by Absalon and other Protestant clergy to remove holy images from the churches of Bergen, Sweden, in accordance with Lutheran teachings. Because the clergymen themselves were too highly placed for their efforts to be resisted directly, opposition focused on Anna. She was first acquitted of charges in 1575, but more accusations arose years later. She was tried again and executed in 1590. Her trial later became the basis for a play and then the film by Carl Theodore Dreyer, Day of Wrath. ACCUSATORIAL PROCEDURE. This refers to the basic system of criminal procedure that was used in most courts of law, mainly secular but also to some degree ecclesiastical, in medieval Europe prior to the 13 th century....

Historical Study And Modern Witchcraft

In the course of the 19th century, European scholars first began to address the question of historical witchcraft and the witch-hunts of the late-medieval and early-modern periods in a serious way (although many of their conclusions were based more on their own ideological convictions than on the historical evidence). As early as 1828, the German scholar Karl-Ernst Jarcke advanced the theory that those persecuted for witchcraft had in fact been practicing an ancient, pagan religion. His purpose was in some way to justify, or at least to rationalize, the witch-hunts as a serious effort on the part of ecclesiastical and secular authorities to enforce a real Christianization on the populace. In 1862, the French historian Jules Michelet published his study, La sorci re, making a similar argument, but to opposite effect. Michelet presented the supposed religion of witchcraft as a means of positive popular resistance against the oppressive authority of the church in the Middle Ages. The...

Colonialamerica Witchcraft In Witchcraft was not a

Significant problem, and witch-hunts were extremely rare, throughout almost all of the European colonies in the New World. The major exception occurred in the British colonies in New England, where significant witch-hunting did occur in the 17th century. In all, more than 200 people were put on trial for witchcraft in New England, over half in the single famous outbreak at Salem, Massachusetts, and 36 were executed, with 20 of these occurring at Salem alone. This number is significant given that the population of the New England colonies at this time was only around 100,000 people. Thus courts in New England executed something like 50 percent more witches per capita than were sentenced to death in the British Isles, even if statistics from Scotland, where witch-hunting was more severe, are included along with figures from England itself. In many ways, in fact, witchcraft in New England followed more of a continental pattern than the pattern most common in the British Isles. In...

Witchcraft In Other World Cultures

In Europe, witchcraft developed along a particular historical trajectory, deeply influenced by Christian concepts of evil, the devil, and de-monology, but shaped also by unique European social and legal developments. For these reasons, the great witch-hunts that occurred in Europe from the 15th to the 18th centuries have never been matched elsewhere in the world. Nevertheless, witchcraft in a more general sense, understood to mean simply the practice of harmful forms of sorcery by malevolent individuals, can be said to have existed in virtually every human culture throughout history. As these figures have almost universally inspired fear and anxiety, so attempts at suppression of witchcraft and the eradication of witches have also occurred throughout human history, although never on the scale of the witch-hunts of Europe. Witchcraft has been a concern, it seems, from the very dawn of humankind. In ancient Mesopotamia, people believed that the world was full of hostile supernatural...

Fighting Witchcraft With Witchcraft

In my book How To Prevent Psychic Blackmail The Philosophy Of Psychoselfism I write the following Voodoo, witchcraft, black magic, hexing, crossing powders and all the rest feed on two things guilt and fear. This is a perfect example of how people are psychically blackmailed by negating their own minds by attributing 'special powers' to black art practitioners as an escape from self-responsibility. This is done as a defense against their own guilts. Psychoselfism has fought these, frauds many times. You're punishing yourself because you feel guilty about your relations with this married man. You're using his wife as the spokesman for your own conscience. Of course her witchcraft is working Your guilty conscience is the fertile soil in which she can successfully plant her witchcraft. If she has such power why does she have to let you know about it Why couldn't she have used it silently even before Your Catholic upbringing is working against you as long as you go on this way. Now here's...

Witchcraft In The News

Anthropologist Dr. Michael Kenny said Witchcraft opens up a sense of power denied to the students by the establishment. A male student witch at the Langley High School was shown explaining the meaning of magic talismans commenting Devil worship is a perversion of the Christian Mass. He demonstrated a Conjurer's Circle and the method used to summon various demons in the Satanism and Witchcraft course taught at the school. One female student demonstrated a written hex she put on the person who shot at her cats, setting the paper and its HEX-agrams on fire. She reported that the shooting at the cats stopped. At a supernatural slumber party in Virginia a young witch-medium asked those participating to state and concentrate on the candle flame in an attempt to summon the Spirit of Madame Curie. She went into a trance possession, cried, screamed, spoke in various tones of voice. At Virginia's James Madison High School a young student-witch gave a demonstration of witchcraft using a frozen...

Appendix Classifying Witchcrafts

Witchcraft, Anthropologic Anything an anthropologist calls witchcraft, usually referring to This is pretty close to what the word wicce probably originally referred to, annoying as that may be to modern Wiccans. Witchcraft, Classic Witchcraft, Dianic Witchcraft, Ethnic Witchcraft, Familial or Fam-Trad 99.9 of all the people you will ever meet who claim to be Fam-Trad Witches are simply lying, or have been lied to by their teachers. Familial Tradition Witchcraft is also sometimes called Hereditary Witchcraft or even Genetic Witchcraft. These latter terms are used by those who think that they must claim a witch as an ancestor, in order to be a witch today, or who think that it proves them to be better than those without such ancestry. Witchcraft, Fairy Faery Fa rie (1) Any of several different (and sometimes conflicting) Traditions of Meso- and or Neo-pagan Witchcraft started by the blind poet and scoundrel guru Victor Anderson during the 1970s-1990s. He mixed British and Celtic...

The Goddess And The Horned God In Wicca

Neither evocation nor invocation is part of modern witchcraft, however, and white witches do not recognise any demonic figures in their religion. When we refer to the Goddess and her son-consort, the Horned God of Wicca, we are referring to the archetype or source energies of the feminine and masculine aspects of ultimate power. They are the creative female and male principles, acting not in opposition to each other but as complementary and necessary parts of a whole. All the named goddesses and gods in witchcraft represent the different qualities of these supreme forms, for example the goddesses of the hunt, or specific forms in different cultures. There are, of course, variations within Wicca some traditions emphasise the importance of the Goddess, while others regard the Horned God as her equal, with each assuming different aspects according to the season and ritual. For example, the Goddess may appear as the Earth or Moon deity, and her male counterpart as the Corn God or the Sun.

Mesopagan Witchcraft the Manure

Thinking With Demons The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe, by Stuart The Night Battles Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, by Carlo Ginzburg. Yes, there really were people who thought they could fly through the air at night only these folks did it to fight (what they thought were) witches. Then the Inquisition came along Witchcraft in Europe, 400-1700 A Documentary History, by Alan Charles Kors and Edward Peters Editors . When you actually read the documents of the times, you get a very different picture from both what we were taught in school and the current tales some Neopagans tell. with introduction, bibliography, and notes by Montague Summers . This is an officially approved (the Papal imprimatur has never been rescinded) 1486 theological tome used by many inquisitors as justification for the atrocities committed against women, children, and men for the thought-crime of Gothic Witchcraft. There are Christians today who still accept...

Witchcraft Reappears In County Kerry

A recent UPI story written by Donal O'Higgins was headlined Witchcraft Reappears in County Kerry. Date-lined Dublin, the story details the re-emergence and resurgence of ancient signs and symbols of pishoguery, Irish sorcery and witchcraft - Are reappearing in lonely, coastal areas of the county. The Irish clergy are up in arms. Some people seem to be indulging in pishoguery around here, canon Peter O'Sullivan of Listowel said, and some of my parishioners are disturbed. Irish witchcraft is thousands of years old and predates Christianity. St. Patrick once publicly burned the written incantations of the Druids. Though many of the city dwellers laugh at it it's no joke to the rural clergymen. Among some of the witchcraft rituals are the following A bleeding carcass of a sheep is left in the middle of the night at the doorstep of a prosperous farmer a dozen eggs are hidden away in a corner a lump of hairy bacon is found in the hay a dozen eggs are arranged in a magic circle and to the...

Note To Traditional Wiccans

This book, a further guide for Solitary practitioners of Wicca, isn't an attack on conventional Wicca, Wiccan traditions, covens or usual training procedures. It was written (as was its predecessor) for those without access to conventional Wicca, Wiccan traditions, covens or usual training procedures. Some will see this book as an insult to their form of Wicca, so I repeat this is a guide for Solitary practitioners who have no access to your form of Wicca. This in no way lessens it or any other Wiccan tradition.

Mesopagan Witchcraft the Buds

A Goddess Arrives, and High Magic's Aid, by Gerald Gardner. The first one is a (bad) novel, in which Gardner first explored ideas of reincarnation and goddess worship. The second is another novel in which he reveals much of his thinking during the years he was first creating Wicca. Both are now available in reprint editions from the Church & School of Wicca at < www.wicca.org> or from other online dealers. Witchcraft Today and The Meaning of Witchcraft, by Gerald Gardner. The (officially) non-fiction books in which he revealed to the world that a secret underground religion of Pagan Witchcraft had survived into the What Witches Do the Modern Coven Revealed, by Stewart Farrar. One of the first books published about the Alexandrian Tradition of Wicca, which at the time was 95 identical to Gardnerianism. Good Witch's Bible, by Gavin and Yvonne Frost. Originally published as The Witch's Bible, it caused an uproar among American Wiccans because, among other crimes, it presented a...

Witchcraft In Roman And Saxon Times

From what we know of this latter cult I doubt if it had any effect at all. It was an exclusive, puritanical, male cult of sun-worship, which appealed to stern, hard-living soldiers, and was very popular with the Roman Legionaires. However, it is different when one comes to the Roman and Greek Mysteries. I have told at length in my previous book, Witchcraft Today, of the discoveries in the Villa of the Mysteries at Pompeii. All the Mysteries were

Lesson One The History And Philosophy Of Witchcraft

Before really getting into what Witchcraft is, perhaps we should take a look back at what it was the history of it. Witches should be aware of their roots aware of how and why the persecutions came about, for instance, and where and when the re-emergence took place. There is a great deal to be learned from the past. It's true that much of history can seem dry and boring to many of us, but that is far from so with the history of Witchcraft. It is very much alive and filled with excitement. There have been many books written on the history of Witchcraft. The vast majority have suffered from bias as will be explained shortly but a few of the more recently published ones have told the story accurately or as accurately as we can determine. The late Dr. Margaret Murray traced back and saw Witchcraft's origins in Palaeolithic times 25,000 years ago. She saw it as a more or less unbroken line through to the present, and as a fully organized religion throughout western Europe for centuries...

Contemporary Wicca

Adler, Margot Drawing Down the Moon Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshipers and Other Pagans in America Today New York Viking, 1979. An inside, informed look at Wicca and Paganism. An updated version has recently been published. Photographs. Buckland, Raymond Witchcraft From the Inside St. Paul Llewellyn Publications, 1971. One of the earliest American books on Wicca, this is an explication of so-called Gardnerian Wicca. Photographs. Buckland, Raymond Witchcraft. . . The Religion Bay Shore, New York The Auckland Museum of Witchcraft and Magick, 1966. An early pamphlet describing Gardnerian Wicca. Deutch, Richard The Ecstatic Mother Portrait of Maxine Sanders-Witch Queen London Bachman & Turner, 1977. A written portrait of Maxine Sanders (see Sanders, Maxine below) by a Wiccan author. Photographs. Gardner, Gerald The Meaning of Witchcraft London Aquarian Press, 1959, 1971. Gerald Gardner's look at the origins of Wicca. Photographs. Gardner, Gerald Witchcraft Today London Rider, 1954....

Neo Paganism

As a result of the Enlightenment, a period of intellectual rationalism (reasoning) that started in seventeenth-century Europe and came to the United States in the eighteenth century, (see Chapter 5), cultural, social, economic, and technological changes continued to push fears of witches into the background. Nevertheless, belief in witchcraft still flourished, particularly among peasant societies in isolated areas of Europe. In the nineteenth century an organized revival of witchcraft, called Wicca, took place in Britain among the Romantics, a social and literary group that rejected the dehumanizing effects of industrialization and tried to recapture a closeness to nature. (Wicca is a term for witch that has been traced to Germanic words like wik, meaning to bend, or Old English words such as wiccian, meaning to cast spells, and witan, or wise person.) In the early 1900s the British Order of the Druids, who claimed to have roots in pre-Christian Ireland, became one of the first formal...

Wicca

Remember that few Wiccans agree with one another regarding ritual practices. The same is true of Wiccan authors. Few Wiccan traditions are in complete agreement with the methods of others. Because authors write what they know best, each book may seem to represent true Wicca, even though the authors' descriptions of the religion are totally different. Though they're all members of the same religion, they are still individuals. Wicca is a personal religion. However, to be sure that the Witchcraft about which you're reading is real, keep in mind the information contained within this book. If an author writes of Satan worship, human sacrifice, forced initiations, orgies, meals of human infants and other unpleasant things, he or she is not a Wiccan, and the book is the product of a twisted mind. Think of such books as works of fiction or propaganda, because that's exactly what they are. You may decide that you wish to learn more. If so, try to find a Wiccan in your area. Few Wiccans...

Children And Wicca

Many people are suspicious of witches and all the more so if the practitioner has young children. They seem to fear that witches will exert some kind of evil influence on innocent minds. In my experience, nothing could be further from the truth. Children of Wiccans are almost invariably kind to animals and aware of environmental issues. Some groups have family celebrations and no responsible parent would introduce their children to any experiences before they were ready, least of all Wiccans to whom life is sacred and children the blessing of the Goddess. Lisa, a Wiccan from Berkshire, describes how her daughter has grown up 'I don't know if Skye will ultimately choose Wicca as her spiritual path, but I feel that growing up in a pagan home will give her the best tools for making choices in her life. She will learn to be aware of her environment and will feel a part of it, not above or outside it. Hopefully, this will inspire her to care for it and for others around her, and to...

Solitary Witchcraft

There are many reasons for performing witchcraft alone your personal circumstances or the location of your home may mean that you cannot travel to a group, or you may live in an area where there are few others who share your interests. Many witches like myself choose to practise alone, drawing in my family and close friends to celebrate with me on the festival days. Most solitary witches initiate themselves, though some traditions, such as the Saxon Seat Wicca founded by Raymond Buckland in the USA, do admit solitary witches.

The Coven in Wicca

Existence and formation of covens. Many Wiccans belong to covens, although it is estimated that many more practice alone as solitaries (see solitary). The number of covens is unknown, for most exist quietly, some even secretly. Most Wiccans do not proselytize or seek converts prospective joiners must seek out a coven and ask for admission. Novices are admitted at the coven's discretion not everyone who wants to join a coven is admitted. Applicants are screened and trained in a training circle, traditionally for a year and a day. They are evaluated as to their reasons for wanting to enter the Craft and how well they fit with the group. A coven is a close working group, the effectiveness of which depends heavily upon the rapport and trust of its members. Successful candidates are those who are interested in healing and spiritual development. Candidates who are accepted are formally initiated into the Craft and the coven. Wicca is fluid, and any witch can start a new tradition, as well...

Everyday Wicca

I've already stated that, ideally, religion permeates all aspects of life. Even when we're not lighting candles and casting circles, it's best to live in a Wiccan manner. Life itself can be seen as a ritual to the Goddess and God. Indeed, a Wiccan viewpoint can get us through hard times, just as can adherence to any other religion. To be able to tap this source of peace, however, we must first realize that Wicca isn't limited to ritual, prayer and magic. Wicca is a way of life as much as it's a religion. Applying Wicca's principles to our world is one of the simplest methods of bringing Wicca into our daily lives. The following discussions are suggestions. You may have different interpretations. Some Wiccans express a slightly different concept known as the law of three or the threefold law. This states that anything we do returns to us in triple strength. Thus, a small act of caring may be returned to us as a great act of caring by someone else. A petty act of revenge may result in...

White Witchcraft

Witchcraft is the most common theme of Halloween. Witchcraft is always evil.26 Revisionist his-Page 17 tory continues to cast the witch and neo-pagan communities as those who would help both mankind and planet Earth itself. (White witchcraft is an attempt to promote a alleged difference from black that is no more than an alluring deception.) Painting witchcraft in a good, positive (white) light is the reason for the success of witchcraft along with the general breakdown of Western culture. Halloween practices open the door to the occult and can introduce forces into people's lives that they are not equipped to combat.27

Witchcraft

Witchcraft is not merely legendary it was, and is, real. It is not extinct it is alive and prospering. Since the last laws against Witchcraft were repealed (as recently as the 1950s), Witches have been able to come out into the open and show themselves for what they are. And what are they They are intelligent, community-conscious, thoughtful men and women of TODAY. Witchcraft is not a step backwards a retreat into a more superstition-filled time. Far from it. It is a step forward. Witchcraft is a religion far more relevant to the times than the vast majority of the established churches. It is the acceptance of personal and social responsibility. It is acknowledgement of a holistic universe and a means towards a raising of consciousness. Equal rights feminism ecology attunement brotherly sisterly love planetary care these are all part and parcel of Witchcraft, the old yet new religion. The above is certainly not what the average person thinks of in relation to Witchcraft. No the...

Living Witchcraft

There have been many books written on witchcraft. The early ones were mostly propaganda written by the various Churches to discourage and frighten people from having any connections with what was to them a hated rival - for witchcraft is a religion. Later there were books setting out to prove that this craft had never existed. Some of these books may have been inspired or even written by witches themselves. Latterly there have been many books dealing in a scientific way with witchcraft by such writers as Dr. Margaret Murray, R. Trevor Davis, Christine Hoyle, Arne Runeberg, Pennethorne Hughes and Montague Summers. Mr. Hughes in his most scholarly book on witchcraft has, I think, clearly proved what many knew that the Little People of the heaths, called fairies or elves at one period, were called witches in the next, but to my mind all these books have one fault. Though their authors, know that witches exist, none of them seems to have asked a witch for her (1) views on the subject of...

African Witchcraft

Animism, totemism and fetishism are integral parts of African Witchcraft. Initiates into Witchcraft in the Toma tribes undergo years of study, are taken away from then parents at birth, and when ready must submit to the torture of having a hundred fifty cuts on their bodies, without anesthesia or sterilization, forming a definite design, which markings make them full-fledged witchdoctors if they survive the ordeal Gri gris, dolls, fetishes, herbs, animal skins, claws and teeth, herbs, poison and mind-magic are taught. Though legally outlawed cannibalism is still practiced as part of a religious witchcraft ritual. Eating the heart of a brave man guarantees the same courage and strength. Eating his brains insures his wisdom. Years ago old witch doctors would eat young children in the hope of becoming young again. Among the Ngongo it is the man who goes through the labor pains when his wife is giving birth. He screams, yells, rolls on the ground, and holds his stomach. The Bangwana are...

Irish Witchcraft

The most famous single case of Irish witchcraft is that of Lady Alice Kyteler of Kilkenny. The Bishop of Ossory charged her with witchcraft under the new Bulls issued by Pope John XXII, and she was tried in 1324. The court obviously believed she had been practising witchcraft, but saw no particular harm in it Though supposed to convict her they let her off as lightly as possible and discharged her, much to the Bishop's disgust much as a Manx court in 1659 found Mrs. Jane Ceasar not guilty of witchcraft, though the Bishop managed to get her sentenced to 'abjure her witchcraft, the following Sunday in Malew Church' (a curious case of 'not guilty but you must promise not to do it again'.) In Lady Kyteler's case there was sufficient evidence to prove the existence of witchcraft and of a coven of thirteen. Most likely she was in communication with an Irish branch of the Fairy or Little People who celebrated rites similar to those used in England and to those of Dionysus in ancient Rome....

Library of Congress Catalogingin Publication Data

The encyclopedia of witches, witchcraft and wicca rosemary Ellen Guiley. 3rd ed. rev. ed. The encyclopedia of witches and witchcraft . 1999. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13 978-0-8160-7103-6 (hardcover alk. paper) ISBN-10 0-8160-7103-9 (hardcover alk. paper) 1. Witchcraft Encyclopedias. 2. Witches Encyclopedias. I. Guiley, rosemary. Encyclopedia of witches and witchcraft. II. Title. BF1566.G85 2008 133.4'303 dc22 2008008917

Neo Panganism and environmentalism

M Army Wiccan Policy W Attacked In 1999, three hundred years after the resolution of the Salem witch trials, a controversy arose at Fort Hood, Texas, a U.S. Army base known for tolerance of Wiccan soldiers. The controversy started when the press covered a Wiccan vernal equinox celebration in March 1999 and hate mail began flooding into the camp. Wiccans were called Satan worshipers, and many soldiers were physically assaulted. The following May, a U.S Congressman from Texas tried to amend a defense authorization bill to prohibit the practice of Wicca at any Defense Department facility, but the bill was promptly dismissed on procedural grounds. In June 1999 thirteen conservative religious groups issued a statement in which they urged their members not to pay taxes or let their children enlist in the military because of the army's tolerance of Wicca. Several other conservative religious groups stepped into the debate and defended both the military and the right of Wiccans to practice...

Firth Violet Mary See Dion Fortune

Fitch, Ed American Wiccan high priest and key founder of the pagan way. Born in Roxboro, North Carolina, to a family with Russian roots, Ed Fitch grew up in various locations around the country because of the moves required of his father, who worked in the construction trade. At age nine, he and his father sighted a UFO over their ranch in northern California. Fitch remembers that a circular object about 50 feet in diameter, with an aura of orange flames, rose up from a nearby mountain and cruised silently over the ranch. After three years, Fitch returned to civilian life in the United States, working as a technical writer and electronics engineer in Washington, D.C. It was now the 1960s, and contemporary Witchcraft and Paganism were spreading around the country. Fitch was initiated into the Gard-nerian tradition of Witchcraft by Raymond and Rosemary Buckland (see Raymond Buckland) and rose to the rank of high priest. He also was trained in trance channeling by Spiritualist mediums...

Prejudice and other challenges

The resurgence of Wicca has revived fears and superstitions about witchcraft that have lingered since the witchhunts of past centuries. Despite greater access to information and education in the modern era, many people believe Wiccans are Satan worshipers, child abusers, and sexual deviants. Frequently encountering harassment and discrimination, Neo-Paganists sought protection through the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The law states To be a bona fide legally authentic or sincere religious belief entitled to protection under either the First Amendment constitutional right to freedom of religion . . . a belief must be sincerely held and within the believer's own scheme of things religious. Although this part of the act is somewhat vague, it inspired several court decisions that gave official recognition to Wiccans. For example, in 1983 the U.S. District Court of Michigan made a landmark decision when it found that three employees of a prison had violated an inmate's constitutional rights by...

What Does the Word Witch Mean

Is a witch someone who does magic, or who reads fortunes Is a witch someone who worships the Christian Devil Is a Witch (capital letter this time) a member of a specific faith called Wicca Is a witch someone who practices Voodoo, or Macum-ba, or Candomble Are anthropologists correct, when they define a witch as anyone outside of an approved social structure who is suspected of doing evil magic and or of being a monster who can curse people with All these definitions have been claimed as accurate in the past and are used to this day by both friends and foes of (whatever they consider to be) witchcraft. Most people discussing the topic seem to have their own pet definition and are outraged at those with different ideas. As some people may already know, the word witch in Modern English comes, via the Middle English wycche, from the Old English Anglo-Saxon wicce (feminine) and wicca (masculine). The plural noun was wiccan (now used with a capital letter as an adjective for followers of...

Days of Power The See Sabbat

Deosil Clockwise, or the direction in which the shadow on a sundial moves as the Sun moves across the sky. In northern hemisphere magic, deosil movement is symbolic of life, positive energies, good. It is much used in spells and rituals i.e., walk deosil around the Circle of Stones. Some Wiccan groups below the equator, notably in Australia, have switched from deosil to Widdershins motions in their rituals. See also Widdershins. Esbat A Wiccan ritual usually occurring on the Full Moon and dedicated to the Goddess in Her lunar aspect. Evocation Calling up spirits or other nonphysical entities to either visible appearance or invisible attendance. This isn't a Wiccan practice. Compare with Invocation. Imbolc A Wiccan Sabbat celebrated on February 2md, also known as Candlemas, Lupercalia, Feast of Pan, Feast of Torches, Feast of the Waxing Light, Oimelc, Brigit's Day and many other names. Imbolc celebrates the first stirrings of spring and recovery of the Goddess from giving birth to the...

Chapter Consciousness Rites

Wiccans and folk magicians aren't necessarily partakers of New Age consciousness. They existed long before the media buildup occurred, and will be around after the excitement and megadollars have gone. To some outsiders though, they're all one and the same-enemies of true religion. Magicians and Wiccans are drawn to Old Age tools and rituals. They don't necessarily channel entities. To many of them, the New Age is a watered-down version of ancient magical and spiritual processes which use the mechanized tools of the computer age. Many particularly decry the rising prices of such things as stones and herbs, as interest in them increases. Though some persons let go of their earlier prejudices and take up the practice of folk magic or Wicca, many of them still cling to quasi-Christian symbolism. They may attend Christian Spiritual churches, or mediate upon the images of Jesus as a crystal while using its magic. The word God (capital G, with its unexpressed concept of male divinity) is...

What Will You Get From These Lessons

If you complete this course of 12 lessons, you will be eligible for initiation into the First Degree of Correllian Wicca. The First Degree is the lowest level of initiatory membership in a WICCAN TRADITION. Wicca is composed of many traditions most -but not all- of which recognize each others initiations. If you choose to take the First Degree initiation -and you are not obligated to-you will become a member of the Correllian tradition. The Correllian tradition is a synchretic and highly philosophical tradition of Wicca, which stresses the inherent unity of all Pagan traditions and the synchronicity of all spiritual paths. We believe that Deity is in all things, therefore all paths can lead to Deity. Wicca is not an exclusive religion. Because we believe all paths lead to Deity, we do not believe that one must belong to any given faith or tradition to be a good person or to grow spiritually. Nor is it necessary to belong to only one. Being a Correllian initiate does not mean you can...

What happened next

The Council of America Witches disbanded in 1974. The following year the Covenant of the Goddess (CoG) was formed to incorporate hundreds of separate Wiccan covens and was officially recognized as a church in the United States. The CoG is the largest Wiccan organization, representing a variety of belief systems and practices. At the end of the twentieth century Wicca was the eighth largest religion in the United States, ranking with Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and other established faiths. The Wiccan Code of Ethics According to the Institute for the Study of American Religion, Neo-Paganism is the fastest growing religion in the United States. Wiccan spiritual practices and rituals coincide with the phases of the moon, the solstices (the beginnings of Summer and Winter) and equinoxes (the beginnings of Spring and Fall) and traditional celebrations such as May Day and Halloween.

God Of The Month The Crone

The Crone is commonly conceived of as an elderly Grandmother, and represents the last stage of life when the body is at it's weakest, but psychic and magical power are at their strongest. The Crone represents the hieght of Feminine power, and the wisdom and experience which comes with age. The Crone is the Goddess of wisdom, magic, and spirituality, and is traditionally thought of as the Patron of Witches and Witchcraft. In this sense the Crone might be compared to science's BLACK HOLE, constantly swallowing up matter in one place only to spit it back out in a new form elsewhere. This aspect of destruction is one reason why the Crone is often regarded with fear. Because we readily perceive the destruction of the old form, but rarely see the emergeance of the new one, we are afraid of change. We do not realize that only through change can growth come. And so for many the Crone Goddess is a fearsome and terrifying Deity. But this shouldnot be so to the Wiccan, who should strive to...

Appendix I Etymological Notes

What words were used during the Dark Ages, Middle Ages and Renaissance to translate wicce, wicca, and wiccacraeft into other European languages and vice versa The Greeks used the term pharmakos (source of our Modern English words pharmacist, pharmacy, etc.) based on the word pharmakon 'drug, poison, spell.' This is the etymological source of American preacher Billy Graham's (in)famous statement, The word witchcraft comes from the same word as drug and I think that proves something. It certainly would, if the Anglo-Saxons had spoken Greek.

The Second Degree Initiation

Eighth the scourge for learn, in witchcraft you must ever give as you receive, but ever triple. So where I gave thee 3, return 9 where I gave 7, return 21 where I gave 9, return 27 where I gave 21, return 63. (Use, 9, 21, 27, 63 i.e., 120 in all kiss ) The Priestess or Magus is then loosed from the cords and says Having learned thus far, you must know why the Wicca are called the Hidden Children of the Goddess.

Popular false moral and for the good of all and according to free will

That disclaimer is one of the biggest cop-outs I have ever heard. Is it okay to point a loaded gun at an innocent bystander, tell the bullet not to hit him if he doesn't want it to, and then pull the trigger The very idea that a few words can excuse our actions is completely contrary to one of the fundamental differences between Wicca and Christianity. Wiccans do not believe that a few words can wash away an unjust action. It doesn't matter if you accept forgiveness or make a confession to your priest. It doesn't matter if you say three Hail Marys afterward or include

Lady of the Moon Earth Mother Sister of Power

In Wicca She is perhaps most closely associated with the Moon. Not that Wiccans worship the Moon. They simply see is as a celestial symbol of the power, both manifest and 1 Based on an invocation written by my first Wiccan teacher and included in Wicca A Guide For The Solitary Practitioner. unmanifest, of the Goddess. Some Wiccans call the Goddess Diana in Her lunar aspect. Most meet for worship on the nights of the Full Moon each month. She is also associated with the Earth. The entire planet is a manifestation of Goddess energy, a tangible example of the powers of Mother Nature. Wiccans may revere Her in this aspect as Gaea, Demeter, Astarte, Kore, and by many other names. The Goddess is inextricably linked with women in general. Childbirth, menstruation, and other women's mysteries were anciently celebrated with religious rituals. Many feminist Wiccan groups today still perform such rites. Many are heavily involved in politics in an effort to secure women's well-deserved equality...

Popular false moral You should never attempt manipulative magick

All acts of magick are acts of manipulation. Consider what you have previously heard or read about manipulative magick elsewhere. Most Wiccan literature claims that manipulative magick is bad. Our social ethics tend to agree, but only to a point. The leaders of the Wiccan community have given us very mixed signals on the issue of magickal ethics. In his book Incense, Oils, and Brews, Scott Cunningham lists business incense. The instructions tell the reader to burn the incense in a window to attract customers. Knowing how directly connected the sense of smell is to the brain, this does seem awfully manipulative. Isn't this subliminal advertising, or do subliminal suggestions only count if sight or sound is used Is there that much difference between the customer attracting incense that Wiccans rarely feel is unethical and the infamous subliminal advertising corporations have been accused of using against unknowing customers Once you recognize the spell is real and question how it...

Lesson Vii Invocation Invocation

In Correllian Wicca we have two basic ways of looking at Deity UNIVERSAL DEITY, and PERSONAL DEITY. Universal Deity is conceived as being everywhere, in everything. Universal Deity is the Divine consciousness behind the energy that forms and gives life to all that exists -and in Correllian Wicca we believe that anything which exists lives. Universal Deity is above and beyond all individual aspects and manifestations, including the Universe itself. Universal Deity is the Creator, Sustainer, and Essence of all things. In any religion, and certainly in Wicca, your personal relationship to Deity is of primary importance. We have many forms of Deity, but we know that They -like we ourselves- ultimately reflect a single Power Which flows through all things. That single Power -Universal Deity- is ultimately loving, creative, and always acts toward the good consequently all Personal Deities are also ultimately loving, creative, and act always toward the good. Everything you experience has a...

Appendix Reconciling With the Moon

I asked Ashleen if I could include her review of Hutton's work in this edition of Witchcraft A Concise Guide, not only because I agree with almost everything she says, but also because much of what she says about the need for Wiccans to accept and take pride in our true history applies to my research as well. Words in square brackets are mine. iTS onald Hutton, a Professor of His-JFSM tory at the University of Bristol, has written a book called The Triumph of the Moon A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. The book is well researched, clearly and cogently presented, encouraging, and respectful. It's important for all those (and other) reasons and because it will be devastating to some of us. No, he says, Wicca wasn't handed down in secret through persecuted generations. This bit came from Masonic ritual, that from ceremonial magic, and the other from the Romantic poets or the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry. The genealogy he uncovers for modern Wicca is not disinteresting or dishonorable,...